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Technical Paper

Laser Ignition in a Pre-Mixed Engine: The Effect of Focal Volume and Energy Density on Stability and the Lean Operating Limit

2005-10-24
2005-01-3752
A series of tests using an open beam laser ignition system in an engine run on pre-mixed, gaseous fuels were performed. The ignition system for the engine was a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. A single cylinder research engine was run on pre-mixed iso-butane and propane to determine the lean limit of the engine using laser ignition. In addition, the effect of varying the energy density of the ignition kernel was investigated by changing the focal volume and by varying laser energy. The results indicate that for a fixed focal volume, there is a threshold beyond which increasing the energy density [kJ/m3] yields little or no benefit. In contrast, increasing the energy density by reducing the focal volume size decreases lean performance once the focal volume is reduced past a certain point. The effect of ignition location relative to different surfaces in the engine was also investigated. The results show a slight bias in favor of igniting closer to a surface with low thermal conductivity.
Technical Paper

A High-Energy Continuous Discharge Ignition System for Dilute Engine Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1628
SwRI has developed the DCO® ignition system, a unique continuous discharge system that allows for variable duration/energy events in SI engines. The system uses two coils connected by a diode and a multi-striking controller to generate a continuous current flow through the spark plug of variable duration. A previous publication demonstrated the ability of the DCO system to improve EGR tolerance using low energy coils. In this publication, the work is extended to high current (≻ 300 mA/high energy (≻ 200 mJ) coils and compared to several advanced ignition systems. The results from a 4-cylinder, MPI application demonstrate that the higher current/higher energy coils offer an improvement over the lower energy coils. The engine was tested at a variety of speed and load conditions operating at stoichiometric air-fuel ratios with gasoline and EGR dilution.
Journal Article

A Continuous Discharge Ignition System for EGR Limit Extension in SI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0661
A novel continuous inductive discharge ignition system has been developed that allows for variable duration ignition events in SI engines. The system uses a dual-coil design, where two coils are connected by a diode, combined with the multi-striking coil concept, to generate a continuous current flow through the spark plug. The current level and duration can be regulated by controlling the number of re-strikes that each coil performs or the energy density the primary coils are charged to. Compared to other extended duration systems, this system allows for fairly high current levels during the entire discharge event while avoiding the extremely high discharge levels associated with other, shorter duration, high energy ignition systems (e.g. the plasma jet [ 1 , 2 ], railplug [ 3 ] or laser ignition systems [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Novel, Off Road, Diesel Combustion Concept

2016-04-05
2016-01-0728
There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Journal Article

Boosting Simulation of High Efficiency Alternative Combustion Mode Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0358
Four high-efficiency alternative combustion modes were modeled to determine the potential brake thermal efficiency (BTE) relative to a traditional lean burn compression ignition diesel engine with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment. The four combustion modes include stoichiometric pilot-ignited gasoline with EGR dilution (SwRI HEDGE technology), dual fuel premixed compression ignition (University of Wisconsin), gasoline partially premixed combustion (Lund University), and homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) (SwRI Clean Diesel IV). For each of the alternative combustion modes, zero-D simulation of the peak torque condition was used to show the expected BTE. For all alternative combustion modes, simulation showed that the BTE was very dependent on dilution levels, whether air or EGR. While the gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) could be shown to improve as the dilution was increased, the required pumping work decreased the BTE at EGR rates above 40%.
Journal Article

The Interaction of Fuel Anti-Knock Index and Cooled EGR on Engine Performance and Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-1149
Experiments were performed on a 2.4L boosted, MPI gasoline engine, equipped with a low-pressure loop (LPL) cooled EGR system and an advanced ignition system, using fuels with varying anti-knock indices. The fuels were blends of 87, 93 and 105 Anti-Knock Index (AKI) gasoline. Ignition timing and EGR sweeps were performed at various loads to determine the tradeoff between EGR level and fuel octane rating. The resulting engine data was analyzed to establish the relationship between the octane requirement and the level of cooled EGR used in a given application. In addition, the combustion difference between fuels was examined to determine the effect that fuel reactivity, in the form of anti-knock index (AKI), has on EGR tolerance and burn rate. The results indicate that the improvement in effective AKI of the fuel from using EGR is constant across commercial grade gasolines at about 0.5 ON per % EGR.
Technical Paper

Air-Assisted Direct Injection Diesel Investigations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0907
Enhancement of fuel/air mixing is one path towards enabling future diesel engines to increase efficiency and control emissions. Air-assist fuel injections have shown potential for low pressure applications and the current work aims to extend air-assist feasibility understanding to high pressure environments. Analyses were completed and carried out for traditional high pressure fuel-only, internal air-assist, and external air-assist fuel/air mixing processes. A combination of analytical 0-D theory and 3D CFD were used to help understand the processes and guide the design of the air-assisted setup. The internal air-assisted setup was determined to have excellent liquid fuel vaporization, but poorer fuel dispersion than the traditional high-pressure fuel injections.
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