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Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Alternative Combustion Crossing Stoichiometric Air Fuel Ratio for Clean Diesels

Alternative combustion crossing stoichiometric air fuel ratio was investigated to utilize a 4-way catalyst system with LNT (lean NOx trap). The chemical mechanism of restricting soot formation reactions with low combustion temperature was combined with the physical mechanism of reducing smoke by lowering local equivalence ratio to enable low smoke rich and near rich combustion. A new combustion chamber for spatially and timely mixture formation phasing was developed to combine the two mechanisms and allow smooth EGR changing over a wide load range. Through this investigation, rich and near rich combustion to effectively utilize a 4-way catalyst system was realized. In addition, conditions suitable for LNT sulfur regeneration were realized from light to medium load.
Technical Paper

Engine Crankshaft Position Tracking Algorithms Applicable for Given Arbitrary Cam- and Crank-Shaft Position Signal Patterns

This paper describes algorithms that can recognize and track the engine crankshaft position for arbitrary cam- and crank-shaft tooth wheel patterns in both steady-state and transient operating conditions. Crankshaft position tracking resolution is adjustable to accommodate different application requirements. The instantaneous crankshaft position information provided by the position tracking module form the basis for crankshaft angle domain (CAD) engine control and measurement functions such as precise injection / ignition controls and on-line cylinder pressure CAD analyses. The algorithms described make reconfiguration of the tracking module for different and arbitrary cam- and crank-shaft tooth wheel patterns very easy, which is valuable especially for prototyping engine control systems. The effectiveness of the algorithms is shown using test engines with different cam and crank signal patterns.
Technical Paper

US 2010 Emissions Capable Camless Heavy-Duty On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

The goal of this project was to demonstrate a low emissions, high efficiency heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine. The emissions targets for this project are to demonstrate US 2010 emissions standards on the 13-mode steady state test. To meet this goal, a chemically correct combustion (stoichiometric) natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three way catalyst (TWC) was developed. In addition, a Sturman Industries, Inc. camless Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system was used to improve efficiency. A Volvo 11 liter diesel engine was converted to operate as a stoichiometric natural gas engine. Operating a natural gas engine with stoichiometric combustion allows for the effective use of a TWC, which can simultaneously oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and reduce NOx. High conversion efficiencies are possible through proper control of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Investigation of a High-Efficiency NOx Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engines

A high-efficiency NOx aftertreatment system has been proposed for use in Diesel engines. This system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) in series with a Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst [6], [7], [8], and is hereinafter referred to as the LNT-SCR system. The combined LNT-SCR system can potentially overcome many of the drawbacks of LNT-only and SCR-only operation and achieve very high NOx conversion efficiency without external addition of ammonia (or urea). A laboratory test procedure was developed to validate the LNT-SCR system concept, and a series of tests was conducted to test the NOx conversion of this system under various conditions. A Synthetic Gas Reactor (SGR) system was modified to accommodate LNT and SCR catalyst cores and synthetic gas mixtures were used to simulate rich-lean regeneration cycles from a diesel engine. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) system was used to measure gas compositions within the LNT-SCR system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Belt CVT Fluid Test Procedure Using the VT20/25E Belt Box for the DEX-CVT® Specification

The introduction of the continuously variable transmission (CVT) by General Motors required the introduction of a test to evaluate fluid for the ECOTEC VTi transmission. With assistance from Van Doorne's Transmissie (VDT), the belt and sheave supplier for the transmission, a rig was constructed to test fluids in a transmission-like environment without the variability of in-vehicle testing. The test schedule includes testing for fluid friction coefficient, shear stability, and wear rating and is currently subject to further work aimed at confirming repeatability and discrimination. Once confirmed, the new procedure will become part of the DEX-CVT® specification for the new service fluids for the VT20/25E transmissions.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Improving Fuel Economy and Performance Prediction through Coupled Thermal Systems Simulation

Vehicle designers make use of vehicle performance programs such as RAPTOR™ to predict the performance of concept vehicles over ranges of industry standard drive cycles. However, the accuracy of such predictions may be greatly influenced by factors requiring more specialist simulation capabilities. For example, fuel economy prediction will be heavily influenced by the performance of the engine cooling system and its impact on the vehicle's aerodynamic drag, and the load from the air-conditioning system. To improve the predictions, specialist simulation capabilities need to be applied to these aspects, and brought together with the vehicle performance calculations through co-simulation. This paper describes the approach used to enable this cosimulation and the benefits achieved by the vehicle designer.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part IV

This paper reports on the fourth part of a continued study on further research and development with the automated Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Research over the past six years (reported in SAE papers #961182, 971636 and 1999-01-3591) has demonstrated the capabilities of this automated apparatus to measure the ignition quality and accurately determine a derived cetane number (DCN) for a wide range of middle distillate and non-conventional diesel fuels. The present paper reports on a number of separate investigations supporting these continued studies.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements and NOx Reduction by Reduction of Parasitic Losses: Effect of Engine Design

Reducing aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance in trucks using cooled EGR engines meeting EPA 2004 emissions standards has been observed to result in increases in fuel economy and decreases in NOx emissions. We report here on tests conducted using vehicles equipped a non-EGR engine meeting EPA 2004 emission standards and an electronically-controlled engine meeting EPA 1998 emissions standards. The effects of trailer fairings and single-wide tires on fuel economy and NOx emissions were tested using SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and by the gravimetric method specified by test procedure J1321. Fuel consumption decreased and fuel economy increased by a maximum of about 10 percent, and NOx emissions decreased by a maximum of 20 percent relative to baseline.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of Optimized Engine Oils for Modern Two-Stroke Cycle Direct Fuel Injected Outboard Engines

Despite the recent increase in fuel prices, the multi-billion dollar recreational boating market in North America continues to experience solid momentum and growth. In the U.S. economy alone, sales of recreational boats continue to increase with over 17 million boats sold in 2004 [1]. Of that share, outboard boats and the engines that power them, accounted for nearly half of all boat sales. Though there has been a shift in outboard technology to four-stroke cycle engines, a significant number of new engine sales represent two-stroke cycle engines employing direct fuel injection as a means to meet emissions regulations. With the life span of modern outboards estimated to be 8 to 10 years, a significant base of two-stroke cycle engines exist in the market place, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Sulfur Test Method Variability: A Statistical Analysis of Reproducibility from the 2005 US EPA ULSD Round-Robin Test Program

Beginning June 1, 2006, 80% of the highway diesel fuel produced in the United States had to contain 15 ppm sulfur or less. To account for sulfur test method variability, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) allowed a 2 ppm compliance margin, meaning that in an EPA enforcement action fuel measuring 17 ppm or less would still be deemed compliant since the true sulfur level could still be 15 ppm. Concern was voiced over the appropriateness of the 2 ppm compliance margin, citing recent American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) round-robin and crosscheck test program results that showed sulfur test lab-to-lab variability (reproducibility) on the order of 4 to 5 ppm depending on test method.
Technical Paper

Intentional Failure of a 5000 psig Hydrogen Cylinder Installed in an SUV Without Standard Required Safety Devices

A vehicle's gasoline fuel tank was removed and replaced with a 5,000-psig, Type-III, aluminum-lined hydrogen cylinder. High-pressure cylinders are typically installed with a thermally-activated pressure relief device (PRD) designed to safely vent the contents of the cylinder in the event of accidental exposure to fire. The objective of this research was to assess the results of a catastrophic failure in the event that a PRD were ineffective. Therefore, no PRD was installed on the vehicle to ensure cylinder failure would occur. The cylinder was pressurized and exposed to a propane bonfire in order to simulate the occurrence of a gasoline pool fire on the underside of the vehicle. Measurements included temperature and carbon monoxide concentration inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle to evaluate tenability. Measurements on the exterior of the vehicle included blast wave pressures. Documentation included standard, infrared, and high-speed video.
Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Evaluate Engine Wear Under the Influences of Advanced Combustion System Operation and Lubricant Performance

Radioactive tracer technology is an important tool for measuring component wear on a real-time basis and is especially useful in measuring engine wear as it is affected by combustion system operation and lubricant performance. Combustion system operation including the use of early and/or late fuel injection and EGR for emissions control can have a profound effect on aftertreatment contamination and engine reliability due to wear. Liner wear caused by localized fuel impingement can lead to excessive oil consumption and fuel dilution can cause excessive wear of rings and bearings. To facilitate typical wear measurement, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings are initially exposed to thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that are separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces.
Technical Paper

Developmental Fuels Emissions Evaluation

Emissions characterization of three, small off-road engines of less than 19 kW power rating operating on two developmental fuels and one reference fuel was performed. The two fuels were formulated to remove benzene completely, curtail sulfur, and in one blend, include a substantial proportion of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). The engines selected included one side-valve four-stroke engine, one overhead valve four-stroke engine and one handheld two-stroke engine. The engines were maintained in stock condition. Exhaust emissions from operation with the two developmental fuels were compared to those from operation with light-duty certification-grade gasoline. California Air Resources Board (CARB) Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) emissions test methods and test cycles were used to test the engines. Duplicate tests were performed on each engine using dilute sampling procedures. Hydrocarbon speciation was performed on one replicate with each fuel.
Technical Paper

A History of Mack Engine Lubricant Tests from 1985-2005: Mack T-7 through Mack T-12

As on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine designs have evolved to meet tighter emissions specifications and greater customer requirements, the crankcase environment for heavy-duty engine lubricants has changed. Engine lubricant quality is very important to help ensure engine durability, engine performance, and reduce maintenance downtime. Beginning in the late 1980's, a new Mack genuine oil specification and a new American Petroleum Institute (API) heavy-duty engine lubricant category have been introduced with each new U.S. heavy-duty, on-highway emissions specification. This paper documents the history and development of the Mack T-7, T-8, T-8A, T-8E, T-9, T-10, T-11, and T-12 engine lubricant tests.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition in a Pre-Mixed Engine: The Effect of Focal Volume and Energy Density on Stability and the Lean Operating Limit

A series of tests using an open beam laser ignition system in an engine run on pre-mixed, gaseous fuels were performed. The ignition system for the engine was a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. A single cylinder research engine was run on pre-mixed iso-butane and propane to determine the lean limit of the engine using laser ignition. In addition, the effect of varying the energy density of the ignition kernel was investigated by changing the focal volume and by varying laser energy. The results indicate that for a fixed focal volume, there is a threshold beyond which increasing the energy density [kJ/m3] yields little or no benefit. In contrast, increasing the energy density by reducing the focal volume size decreases lean performance once the focal volume is reduced past a certain point. The effect of ignition location relative to different surfaces in the engine was also investigated. The results show a slight bias in favor of igniting closer to a surface with low thermal conductivity.
Technical Paper

The Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engine - An Alternative to Meet Emissions Standards of Tomorrow

A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.