The Effect of Fuel Composition and Additive Content on Injector Deposits and Performance of an Air-Assisted Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Research Engine
This paper presents the findings of some fundamental characterisation of the deposits that form on the injectors of an air-assisted DISI automotive engine, including the effect of these deposits on engine performance when operated in different combustion modes, with varying fuel composition and additive content. A root cause analysis was undertaken, including an assessment of injector temperature and deposit chemistry. Fuels from a matrix designed around the European year 2000 gasoline specifications for T90, olefin and aromatic levels were used to study the effect of fuel composition on deposit formation. Two commercial gasoline detergent additives, of different chemistries, were used to investigate the impact on deposit formation. The results of the fuels study and deposit analysis are consistent with published theories concerning fuel composition impact on combustion chamber deposit (CCD).