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Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Effect of Small Holes and High Injection Pressures on Diesel Engine Combustion

The use of small-hole diesel injector tips and high injection pressures was investigated as a countermeasure to the increased particulate matter (PM) emissions formed when using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines. This study examined the use of injector tip hole sizes down to about 0.09-mm (0.0035 in.), and injection pressures to 300 MPa (3000 bar, or 43,500 psi). The first phase of these studies was conducted in a high-temperature, high-pressure combustion bomb, with supporting calculations using a unit injector model, a jet-mixing model, and a diesel jet evaporation model. The second phase was conducted in a commercial diesel engine of 12.7-liter displacement designed to meet U.S. 1998 emissions levels. Engine tests were conducted with a baseline cam and a faster rise-rate cam, and three different hole tip sizes. The cams consisted of a baseline cam and a cam of similar design, but with a 12 percent faster rise rate.