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Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Measurements

A technique was demonstrated that can quantify the state of mixture preparation during the critical periods of ignition and very early flame development in a “production” spark-ignited engine. To determine the degree of stratification and vaporization two fast-response hydrocarbon (HC) probes were placed in a specially adapted spark plug. Data from the HC analyzer was correlated with cylinder pressure data to relate changes in mixture preparation to classic engine measures, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Modeling

This paper describes the results of using the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) engine friction model to examine the effects of changing certain design parameters on the friction of a gasoline engine. The paper gives the results of an examination of the effects of changing the main and cam-shaft bearing aspect ratio on the friction of those bearings, and the effect of the tension of the piston rings, and the gas loading on them. The model predicts that the friction of the piston rings is the highest single component in the friction, except at high engine speeds, where the predicted windage was greater. Next, after the piston rings, was the piston skirt friction. The remaining components were relatively small, and in order of importance were the accessories, the cam bearing friction, cam/tappet friction, the main bearing, the crank pin, and oscillatory friction in the valve train, in that order.
Technical Paper

The Stratified Charge Glowplug Ignition (SCGI) Engine with Natural Gas Fuel

The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a natural gas two-stroke engine using glow plug ignition with very lean mixtures. Based on the results obtained, the term SCGI (stratified charge glow plug ignition) was coined to describe the engine. An JLO two-stroke diesel engine was converted first to a natural gas fueled spark-ignited engine for the baseline tests, and then to an SCGI engine. The SCGI engine used a gas operated valve in the cylinder head to admit the natural gas fuel, and a glow plug was used as a means to initiate the combustion. The engine was successfully run, but was found to be sensitive to various conditions such as the glow plug temperature. The engine would run very lean, to an overall equivalence ratio of 0.33, offering the potential of good fuel economy and low NOx emissions.