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Technical Paper

Development of a New Pre-crash Safety System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1461
Systems already exist that reduce collision damage through collision-danger alarms and by operating such features as pre-tensioning seat belts and collision mitigation brakes when the system has determined the possibility of a collision by using millimeter-wave radar. Conversely, at present, carelessness in observing oncoming traffic accounts for a large percentage of head-on collisions. Timely collision warnings are effective in avoiding accidents and for mitigating the severity of the collision. However, warnings given too early even before the driver has had a chance to carry out normal evasive maneuvers, can annoy the driver. Accordingly, by adding a driver face direction sensor, the authors have developed in the present research a system that will only hasten the timing of warnings when the system has detected the direction of the driver's face and determined that they are not facing the front of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

An Engine Start/Stop System for Improved Fuel Economy

2007-04-16
2007-01-1777
During city traffic or heavily congested roads, a vehicle can consume a substantial amount of fuel idling when the vehicle is stopped. Due to regulation enforcement, auto manufacturers are developing systems to increase the mileage and reduce emissions. Turning off the engine at traffic lights and regenerative braking systems are simple ways to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In order to develop strong manufacturer and consumer interest, this type of operation needs to be automated such that the stop/start functionality requires no driver interaction and takes place without the intervention of the vehicle operator. Valeo Electrical Systems has developed such a system that replaces the OEM engine alternator with a starter/alternator driven by a standard multi-ribbed V belt. To avoid a break and dual voltage network, this system is based on a 12V electrical system using an Enhanced Power Supply.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in the Development of Hybrid Luxury Sedan with Series/Parallel Hybrid System

2007-05-15
2007-01-2232
For a luxury sedan, quietness is a major selling point, and a hybrid luxury sedan is expected to be especially quiet. Therefore, in the development of the hybrid luxury sedan, every possible effort is needed to reduce the hybrid system noise in order to ensure a level of quietness far superior to that of an ordinary gasoline-powered vehicle. In addition, the noise and vibration phenomena that are particular to vehicles with longitudinal power trains require special reduction technologies. This paper first describes the superior quietness of hybrid luxury vehicles in comparison with ordinary gasoline-powered vehicles. This paper then addresses the development issues of vibration during engine starting, engine booming noise, and motor noise, explaining the mechanisms by which they are generated and the technologies employed to reduce them.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

2007-05-15
2007-01-2345
It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Technical Paper

Development of Suspension Design Technology Applying Principal Elastic Axes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0857
Automobile manufacturers have increased the pace of vehicle development in recent years to respond to diverse market demands. Consequently, it has become crucial for manufacturers to develop new technology which enables a particular vehicle to simultaneously achieve both ride comfort and handling performance at an optimal level. This article introduces the suspension design technology applying the Principal Elastic Axes that has been developed by our company for use in its vehicles. These axes, which consist of three translational and three rotational axes, represent the set of fully decoupled stiffness axes. Applying the Principal Elastic Axes to the suspension reduces the number of design parameters, which enables suspension movements to be considered totally and simply.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4081
Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

Effect of Contamination on Filter Performance

2007-10-29
2007-01-4139
Excessive wear and malfunctions in fluid power handling systems are often caused by contaminants or small particles that may be built-in, self-generated, or ingested from the environment. Filtration subsystems in such systems are designed to prevent these problems from happening. However, machine performance degradation, shortened service life, and even catastrophic failures are occasionally encountered in the real world. Then, what is the missing linkage? This paper tries to address the issue using a multi-disciplinary approach that employs failure analyses, laboratory experimentation, predictive correlation, and concurrent engineering with an emphasis on contaminant characterization and filtration strategies. Practical contamination analysis methodologies are discussed via examples and case studies.
Technical Paper

Monitoring of Ring Face, Ring Side and Liner Wear in a Mack T-10 Test, using Surface Layer Activation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4002
The API has established lubricant specifications, which include standard tests for ring and liner wear. The Mack T-10 is one such test, performed on a prototype engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). At EOT, the liner wear is measured by profilometry, while the ring wear is measured by weight loss. It was decided to monitor the wear of the rings and liners during a full-length T10 test in order to observe the evolution of the wears and wear rates over the course of the test, by using the Surface Layer Activation (SLA) and Bulk Activation (BA) techniques. Three different radioisotopes were created, one in the liners at the turnaround zone, one in the chromium-containing coating on the ring faces, and one in the iron bulk of the rings. This enabled us to observe the wear characteristics of these three components separately. In particular, we were able to separate the face and side ring wears, which cannot be done with simple weight-loss measurements.
Technical Paper

Engine Starting System Development by Belt Drive Mechanism

2002-03-04
2002-01-1086
The basic concept of the Toyota mild hybrid system is to provide a smooth and reliable engine restarting method from an idling stop, while at the same time being able to drive all of the accessories during the idling stop. This concept has been realized and marketed for the first time in the world, by utilizing a newly developed simulation of belt behavior to optimize the specification of the belt and its peripheral parts.
Technical Paper

Effects of High Temperature and Pressure on Fuel Lubricated Wear

2001-09-24
2001-01-3523
While standardized laboratory-scale wear tests are available to predict the lubricity of liquid fuels under ambient conditions, the reality is that many injection systems operate at elevated temperatures where fuel vaporization is too excessive to perform the measure satisfactorily. The present paper describes a High Pressure High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HPHFRR) purposely designed to evaluate fuel lubricity in a pressurized environment at temperatures of up to 300°C. The remaining test parameters are identical to those of the widely standardized High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results obtained using the HPHFRR indicate that wear rate with poor lubricity fuels is strongly sensitive to both temperature and oxygen partial pressure and may be orders of magnitude higher than at ambient conditions. Surprisingly however, wear rate was found to decrease dramatically at temperatures above 100°C, possibly due to evaporation of dissolved moisture.
Technical Paper

Roadmap for Hybridization of Military Tactical Vehicles: How Can We Get There?

2002-11-18
2002-01-3048
The U.S. Army's National Automotive Center has contracted with Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Advanced Propulsion, LLC, to evaluate the effects on fuel consumption and logistics that would result from hybridizing the powertrains of the Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet. This paper will outline the approach taken to perform that evaluation and present a synopsis of results achieved to date.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

2000-06-19
2000-01-1820
The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particle Size Distribution of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine During FTP Transient Cycle Using ELPI

2000-06-19
2000-01-2001
Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured for the diluted exhaust of a 1991 diesel engine during the US FTP transient cycle for heavy-duty diesel engines. The engine was operated on US 2-D on-highway diesel fuel. The particle measurement system consisted of a full flow dilution tunnel as the primary dilution stage, an air ejector pump as the secondary dilution stage, and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for particle size distribution measurements. Particle number emission rate was the highest during the Los Angeles Non Freeway (LANF) and the Los Angeles Freeway (LAF) segments of the transient cycle. However, on brake specific number basis the LAF had the lowest emission level. The particle size distribution was monomodal in shape with a mode between 0.084 μm and 0.14 μm. The shape of the size distribution suggested no presence of nanoparticles below the lower detection limit of the instrument (0.032 μm), except during engine idle.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Safety System for Heavy Duty Trucks

2006-10-31
2006-01-3486
In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Design Tool and Software Platform for Time-Triggered Network Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0041
This paper describes a design tool and a software platform for FlexRay systems that are investigated in Nagoya University and are proposed to JasPar. The design tool reads the specification of a system as a task graph that consists of a set of tasks and messages among them. The design tool, then, allocates the tasks to ECUs and schedules the messages on a FlexRay network. The software platform consists of a middleware called time-trigger module (TTM) which dispatches time-triggered tasks, a communication middleware for a time-triggered network (TT-COM), a network management middleware for FlexRay (FlexRay-NM), and a device driver for FlexRay controller.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cervical Spine Kinematics and Joint Capsule Strain in Rear Impacts using a Human FE Model

2006-11-06
2006-22-0020
Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of whiplash injury. Recently, the cervical facet joint capsules have been focused on as a potential site of injury. An experimental approach has been taken to analyze the vertebral motion and to estimate joint capsule stretch that was thought to be a potential cause of pain. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kinematics of the cervical facet joint using a human FE model in order to better understand the injury mechanism. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was used to visually analyze the local and global kinematics of the spine. Soft tissues in the neck were newly modeled and introduced into THUMS for estimating the loading level in rear impacts. The model was first validated against human test data in the literature by comparing vertebrae motion as well as head and neck responses. Joint capsule strain was estimated from a maximum principal strain output from the elements representing the capsule tissues.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

Development of Sealing Material Used in the Body Welding Shop

2007-04-16
2007-01-0418
1 The principal characteristics required of sealing materials used in the body shop have focused on their adhesion to oily steel sheets and quick curing performance. Means for attaining these characteristics have been narrowed down to a basic resin system and a curing system. Various techniques have been studied to ensure proper anti-corrosion performance at the sealer application boundaries and thin application areas. They include the addition of anti-corrosion fillers, the provision of conductivity (through electro-deposition), and the application of a micro foam film over the application boundaries. Thus, prospects for attaining the same level of anti-corrosion performance as existing materials have been achieved.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knee Joint Kinematics and Mechanics using a Human FE Model

2005-11-09
2005-22-0006
Posterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur can stretch the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Fifteen millimeters of relative displacement between the femur and tibia is known as the Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV) for the PCL injury. Since the anterior protuberance of the tibial plateau can be the first site of contact when the knee is flexed, the knee bolster is generally designed with an inclined surface so as not to directly load the projection in frontal crashes. It should be noted, however, that the initial flexion angle of the occupant knee can vary among individuals and the knee flexion angle can change due to the occupant motion. The behavior of the tibial protuberance related to the knee flexion angle has not been described yet. The instantaneous angle of the knee joint at the timing of restraining the knee should be known to manage the geometry and functions of knee restraint devices.
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