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Technical Paper

DAF Euro-4 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with TNO EGR system and CRT Particulates Filter

2001-05-07
2001-01-1947
This paper reports on a study of the TNO venturi EGR system and the Johnson Matthey CRT particulates trap on a DAF 355 kW engine. The results obtained indicate that this EGR-CRT combination is an effective means to achieve EURO-4 emission level, while maintaining good fuel economy. EGR strategy, injection timing and air-fuel ratio were optimised in such a way that good regeneration conditions were obtained across most of the engine operating map. Also transient EGR control is optimised to combine low NOx emission during the ETC with good driveability and good engine out particulates emission. The size of the oxidation catalyst in the CRT was investigated. It appeared that the larger oxidation catalyst showed a better regeneration performance during a low temperature duty-cycle. Negative aspects of a larger oxidation catalyst are increased costs and increased NO2 emission (because of the catalyst ability to oxidise more NO into NO2).
Technical Paper

Engine Dynamometer and Vehicle Performance of a Urea SCR-System for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0286
The application of SCR deNOx aftertreatment was studied on two about 12 liter class heavy-duty diesel engines within a consortium project. Basically, the system consists of a dosage system for aqueous urea injection and a vanadia based SCR catalyst, without an upstream or downstream oxidation catalyst. The urea injection system for a DAF and a Renault V.I. (Véhicules Industriels) diesel engine was calibrated on the engine test bench taking into account dynamic effects of the catalyst. For both engine applications NOx reduction was 81% to 84% over the ESC and 72% over the ETC. CO emission increased up to 27%. PM emission is reduced by 4 to 23% and HC emission is reduced by more than 80%. These results are achieved with standard diesel fuel with about 350 ppm sulfur. The test engines and SCR deNOx systems were built into a DAF FT95 truck and a Renault V.I. Magnum truck.
Technical Paper

Appliance of High EGR Rates With a Short and Long Route EGR System on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0906
The goal of this work was to investigate the possibilities of applying high EGR rates with low NOx and PM emission levels on a two-stage turbocharged 12 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The EGR is applied by using a long and short route EGR system. For the ESC operating points A25 and C100 EGR is applied, such that the NOx emission is 0.5 g/kWh. Lowest PM level and BSFC are achieved when long route EGR is applied in A25 and short route is applied in C100. Increasing the fuel line pressure is an effective way to reduce PM at high EGR rate engine running conditions. At a fuel line pressure of 2400 bar PM emission are 0.06 g/kWh for A25 and 0.54 g/kWh for C100. At C100 the PM reduction coincides with also a significant fuel consumption improvement. Retarding the injection timing at C100 can improve the PM emission further to a level of 0.13 g/kWh at the expense of an increase in BSFC.
Technical Paper

Detailed Modelling of the Lumbar Spine for Investigation of Low Back Pain

2005-06-14
2005-01-2716
Comfort of car seats is becoming an increasingly important issue in the design of vehicles for professional use as well as for personal use. People using cars professionally, like drivers of taxis, trucks, and busses, often have to drive for prolonged periods sometimes leading to physical complaints, like e.g. low back pain. Apart from experimental investigations, virtual testing is becoming more important to get more insight in the problem of low back pain. This paper presents a finite element (FE) model of the lumbar spine (L1-L5). The model contains a detailed geometric description of the lumbar spine and realistic material properties. On a segmental level and as a whole, the model's response was verified for quasi-static and dynamic conditions based on experimental data published in literature. The quasi-static segmental validation comprised of compression, posterior, anterior and lateral shear, flexion and extension, lateral bending and axial torque.
Journal Article

Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0998
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
Journal Article

Integrated Emission Management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1310
A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Following a model-based approach, Integrated Emission Management offers a framework for future control strategy development. This approach alleviates calibration complexity, since it allows to make optimal trade-offs in an operational cost sense. The potential of the presented cost-optimal control strategy is demonstrated for a modern heavy-duty Euro VI engine. The studied diesel engine is equipped with cooled EGR, Variable Geometry Turbocharger, and a DPF-SCR aftertreatment system.
Journal Article

Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for Post-2010 HD Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0915
A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment comprising a standard and a close-coupled SCR catalyst offers a feasible emission solution, especially suited for EURO VI. In this paper, results of a simulation study are presented. This study concentrates on optimizing SCR deNOx performance. Simulation results of cold start FTP and WHTC test cycles are presented to demonstrate the potential of the close-coupled SCR concept. Comparison with measured engine out emissions of an EGR engine shows that a close-coupled SCR catalyst potentially has NOx reduction performance as good as EGR. Practical issues regarding the use of an SCR catalyst in close-coupled position will be addressed, as well as engine and exhaust layout.
Technical Paper

The Climatic-Altitude Chamber as Development and Validation Tool

2010-04-12
2010-01-1294
Two major trends can be identified for powertrain control in the next decade. The legislation will more and more focus on in-use emissions. Together with the global trend to reduce the CO₂ emissions, this will lead to an integral drive train approach. To develop and validate this integral drive train approach, the need for a new chapter in powertrain testing arises. The climatic-altitude chamber, suited for heavy vehicles, serves a wide variety of testing needs. Ambient temperature can be controlled between -45°C and +55°C and ambient pressure can be reduced up to a level found at an altitude to 4000 meters. The chamber's dynamometers enable transient testing of heavy-duty engines and vehicles and the chamber is equipped with a comprehensive array of emission measurement capabilities, working under extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

2014-04-01
2014-01-1318
Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as low-cetane fuel. Limited results have been published using natural gas as low-cetane fuel; especially full scale engine results. This study presents results from an experimental study of diesel-CNG RCCI operation on a 6 cylinder, 8 l heavy duty engine with cooled EGR. This standard Tier4f diesel engine was equipped with a gas injection system, which used single point injection and mixed the gaseous fuel with air upstream of the intake manifold. For this engine configuration, RCCI operating limits have been explored. In the 1200-1800 rpm range, RCCI operation with Euro-VI engine out NOx and soot emissions was achieved between 2 and 9 bar BMEP without EGR.
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