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Technical Paper

Elastomer Blend for Vibration Isolators to Meet Vehicle Key on - Key off Vibrations and Durability

2010-10-05
2010-01-1986
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also include level of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve good cabin comfort, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is main source of NVH issues on vehicle and typically mounted on vehicle using rubber isolators. The dynamic characteristics of rubber isolators play vital role in reducing the vibrations transfer from powertrain to vehicle structure while operation and during dynamic conditions. Traditionally, isolators are manufactured using Natural Rubber (NR) to meet functional requirements which include vibration isolation and durability. At times either of above requirements has to be compromised or sacrificed due to the limitation in compounding process and other practical problems involved with manufacturing of rubber parts.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Frequent Pinion Seal and Hub Seal Leakages on Heavy Commercial Vehicles

2010-10-05
2010-01-2015
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
Technical Paper

Elastomer Isolator Gear Design to Meet Noise, Vibration and Durability of Internal Combustion Engine

2013-09-24
2013-01-2380
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

2013-11-27
2013-01-2807
In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Seat Structure Comfort Evaluation Using Pink Noise and Human/Dummy Transmissibility Correlation

2013-11-27
2013-01-2852
Vehicle floor vibration is the resultant of different road inputs damped through various transfer paths. Seat comfort, which depends on these floor vibrations, can be evaluated with a single input signal “Pink noise”; which constitutes various road inputs. Transmissibility of seat structure on a vibration shaker with pink noise input includes all possible responses of road inputs. Still, transmissibility profile at vehicle end and component level varies. This is due to the utilization of “dummy” on component level testing on vibration shaker, which acts as a dead weight with dissimilar damping characteristics of human. A transmissibility correlation between human and dummy is attained by replacing the dummy in place of human and actuating it to find the difference in contribution between them for different class of vehicles. This contribution extrapolation from the damping effects of human and dummy is applied on dummy transmissibility.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

2013-11-27
2013-01-2794
In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

2010-04-12
2010-01-0276
EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Interdependent Behavior of Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and Engine Starting System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0188
Interdependency of automotive transmission aggregates on electrical/ electronics systems is increasing day by day, offering more comfort and features. For a system integrator, it becomes very much important while selecting/designing any such component to take into consideration the relationship between such interdependent components from performance as well as endurance point of view. DMF failures due to inadequate starting system, is a major stumbling block in development of DMF for a particular vehicle application. The interface of DMF and starting system of a vehicle makes it essential to consider the effect of one on another. The study shows that the majority of DMF failures happen because of resonance phenomenon in the DMF during engine starting. The improper selection of starter motor makes the DMF more vulnerable for such failures.
Journal Article

Sensor less Wash Fluid Detection in Automotive Application

2013-04-08
2013-01-1338
The proposed paper describes the hardware and software method used for detection of wash fluid level in water tank used in automotive; thereby eliminating the need for sensor (Reed type switch mounted on washer bottle) for low wash fluid detection. Wash motor is used for water spray on windscreen during wash and wipe operation. The proposed system makes use of hardware circuit used to drive the wash motor usually of DC (Direct current) type and a feedback circuitry to read back the current consumed by motor during particular wash operation. This hardware system is coupled with software algorithm such that during IGNITION ON instance wash motor will be turned on such as to get motor current readings to determine amount of load operated by motor which is related to wash fluid inside the washer bottle. Motor operation is optimized so as to avoid water spray causing nuisance to user.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Fan Drive (HFD) Used in Commercial Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-0182
Ever tightening emission limits and constant pressure for increasing engine power are resulting in increased engine operating temperature. This coupled with continuous drive for fuel economy improvement because of the stiff competition are forcing OEMs to explore alternative cooling solutions resulting in less power take off and quick response as cooling requirement shoots up. Aim of this paper is to analyze the relative benefits of incorporating a new cooling fan drive system concept over conventional viscous fan driven cooling system with step-less variable speed control independent of engine speed variation. Hydraulic fan drive system control fan rpm based on the fluid temperature as compared to air temperature in viscous coupling fan drive system. HFD system provides quick response when increase in coolant temperature is observed. HFD system in this way provide more control on fan rpm.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Heavy Commercial Vehicle Response to Rear Super Single Tire Blow Out

2017-01-10
2017-26-0341
The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Body Block FE Model Development and Correlation with Physical Tests

2017-01-10
2017-26-0293
Steering column and steering wheel are critical safety components in vehicle interior environment. Steering system needs to be designed to absorb occupant impact energy in the event of crash thereby reducing the risk of injury to the occupant. This is more critical for non-airbag vehicle versions. To evaluate the steering system performance, Body block impact test is defined in IS11939 standard [1]. Nowadays for product development, CAE is being extensively used to reduce development cycle time and minimize number of prototypes required for physical validation. In order to design the steering system to meet the Body Block performance requirements, a detailed FE model of Body Block impactor is required. The static stiffness and moment of inertia of body block are defined in SAE J244a [2]. The reference data available in SAE J244a is not sufficient to develop a Body Block model that would represent the physical impactor.
Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

2017-01-10
2017-26-0304
The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automotive Control Pedals Ergonomics through Mathematical Modelling Based on Human Anthropometry

2017-01-10
2017-26-0252
Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
Technical Paper

Crash Pulse Characterization for Restraints System Performance Optimization

2015-01-14
2015-26-0152
The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
Technical Paper

Method for Detecting the Head Lamp Switch Failure or Wiring Harness Failure and Controlling the Exterior and Interior Lights Using Intelligent Light Sensor

2011-04-12
2011-01-0117
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Cost Effective Methodology for Column Mounted Single Stalk Combination Switch.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0775
As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a need to design the vehicle and its parts at most cost effective. This paper gives the details of design optimization and cost effective methodology followed to develop a Single Stalk Combination Switch, without degrading the end user delight. This paper describes various design criteria affecting the combination switch design.
Journal Article

Development of 1.2L Gasoline Turbocharged MPFI Engine for Passenger Car Application

2017-01-10
2017-26-0026
In the emerging technology trend, there is continuous demand for increase in engine performance in terms of power & torque while providing competitive fuel efficiency. Understanding and fulfillment of complex customer requirements with affordable technology is extremely challenging. In order to meet potential conflicting needs and offer ‘fun to drive’ experience to customers, Tata Motors has developed first in segment turbocharged gasoline MPFI engine. Further in order to create market differentiator, multi drive modes were introduced as segment first feature. The boosted compact 1200 cc engine while developing 90 Ps power, delivers 140 N-m torque over a wide range of 1500-4000 rpm, best suited for Indian drive conditions. This performance boost is nearly 40% over and above performance of comparable NA engine without any compromise on vehicle level fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Level Remote Range Improvement with Low Cost Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0789
Basic Function: Vehicle remote is used for vehicle lock/unlock/search/Hazard lights /approach light functions for customer convenience and vehicle security system. Conventional approach: 1 Use of separate RF (Radio Frequency) receiver -Additional Cost impact. 2 High remote RF power - Reduced remote battery life and bigger remote size required 3 High sensitivity RF receiver - High cost. Low Cost approach: It involves the followings: 1 Integration of RF receiver inside the Body Control Module (BCM). 2 Low Power Remote and Optimization of Remote PCB layout to get the maximum power. 3 External wired antenna taken out from BCM and proper routine need be ensured to get the best performance. 4 BCM mounting location to get the best remote range in all vehicle directions. This paper relates to the methodology for low cost approach for the RF communication between remote transmitter and receiver with achieving the best remote performance at vehicle level condition.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Hardware Design Techniques for Robust and Reliable Power-Supply Circuits for Automotive ECUs

2012-04-16
2012-01-0790
Power-supply forms a key hardware block for every automotive ECU. Apart from delivering robust and reliable logic supply voltages it is also burdened with many auxiliary tasks like transient protection, good EMI/EMC performance, Power-hold function, Analog Sensor supply voltage etc. It also needs to meet all automotive norms including short to battery/ground etc. This paper discusses low cost implementation techniques which maximize the value delivered to the vehicle application at minimal cost. Innovative techniques are described for combining sensor and logic supplies wherever applicable. Hurdles faced during such circuit optimization are clearly explained along with the solutions adopted to overcome hurdles yet meeting automotive test norms. A novel low cost concept which combines transient protection as well as power-hold function (without using the conventional relay based technique) further adds value to the end application.
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