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Technical Paper

Opportunities and Control Measures for Sustainable Transport Growth in Emerging Economy Regions-India

Sustainable development is a very complex concept involving several inter-related issues and concerns. Globalization has given a new dimension to social, economic and environmental development associated with the perceived responsibilities and growth indicators. Both developing and developed countries have the opportunities to exploit comparative advantages in the changing economic, social and environmental scenario while targeting sustainable growth together with expansion of the business prospects. Every region perceives these opportunities with different notion. There is a plethora of indicators for assessing sustainability. However, assessment criteria, prioritization and trade off for a given sustainability parameter against the other could be very complex while evolving transport growth model in emerging economies.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Seat Structure Comfort Evaluation Using Pink Noise and Human/Dummy Transmissibility Correlation

Vehicle floor vibration is the resultant of different road inputs damped through various transfer paths. Seat comfort, which depends on these floor vibrations, can be evaluated with a single input signal “Pink noise”; which constitutes various road inputs. Transmissibility of seat structure on a vibration shaker with pink noise input includes all possible responses of road inputs. Still, transmissibility profile at vehicle end and component level varies. This is due to the utilization of “dummy” on component level testing on vibration shaker, which acts as a dead weight with dissimilar damping characteristics of human. A transmissibility correlation between human and dummy is attained by replacing the dummy in place of human and actuating it to find the difference in contribution between them for different class of vehicles. This contribution extrapolation from the damping effects of human and dummy is applied on dummy transmissibility.
Technical Paper

Elastomer Isolator Gear Design to Meet Noise, Vibration and Durability of Internal Combustion Engine

Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
Technical Paper

Elastomer Blend for Vibration Isolators to Meet Vehicle Key on - Key off Vibrations and Durability

Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also include level of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve good cabin comfort, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is main source of NVH issues on vehicle and typically mounted on vehicle using rubber isolators. The dynamic characteristics of rubber isolators play vital role in reducing the vibrations transfer from powertrain to vehicle structure while operation and during dynamic conditions. Traditionally, isolators are manufactured using Natural Rubber (NR) to meet functional requirements which include vibration isolation and durability. At times either of above requirements has to be compromised or sacrificed due to the limitation in compounding process and other practical problems involved with manufacturing of rubber parts.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Interdependent Behavior of Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and Engine Starting System

Interdependency of automotive transmission aggregates on electrical/ electronics systems is increasing day by day, offering more comfort and features. For a system integrator, it becomes very much important while selecting/designing any such component to take into consideration the relationship between such interdependent components from performance as well as endurance point of view. DMF failures due to inadequate starting system, is a major stumbling block in development of DMF for a particular vehicle application. The interface of DMF and starting system of a vehicle makes it essential to consider the effect of one on another. The study shows that the majority of DMF failures happen because of resonance phenomenon in the DMF during engine starting. The improper selection of starter motor makes the DMF more vulnerable for such failures.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Hydraulic Power Assisted Steering System (E2HPAS)

A hydraulic-assisted power steering system on a vehicle has a steering pump which is directly driven from the engine continuously. In real world, the assistance from the steering pump is useful only while maneuvering. During a typical highway drive, assistance from this power steering pump remains unused for majority (76%) of the time; although the continuously rotating power steering pump keeps consuming energy from the engine. An electronic controller has been provided for the electro-magnetic pairing device of the power steering pump in order to provide assistance for steering based on driver demand only. The electromagnetic pairing device integrated on the steering pump can be made to engage/disengage based on the driver demand through the electronic controller.
Technical Paper

Solar Assisted Vehicle Electrical System (S.A.V.E.)

S.A.V.E. (SOLAR-ASSISTED VEHICLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM) is a microcontroller-based closed loop system designed to optimize the duty cycle of alternator in conventional vehicle electrical system. This has been done by integrating a SOLAR PANEL on the rooftop of a popular hatchback. The SOLAR PANEL supplies continuous power to battery for charging thereby reducing alternator duty cycle. Consequently, in order to optimize/control alternator functioning based on demand, a microcontroller has been incorporated. S.A.V.E. consists of a microcontroller which senses the instantaneous electrical load (in terms of current & voltage drawn) from battery. The controller using the intelligent algorithm keeps on checking this real-time consumption with the threshold values & decides when to activate/deactivate alternator. Thus with this controller, a) reduction in actual CO₂ emission & consequent, and b) 6% improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency has been achieved.
Technical Paper

Innovative Concept of Front Disc Brake Module with Weight Reduction and Cost Optimisation

The customer satisfaction index is higher for disc brake systems because of the advantages like less reaction time, shorter stopping distance and improved pedal feel compared to drum brake system. In current competitive market scenario and as per customer requirements, front disc brake module is becoming necessary. The brake system design is challenging task due to stringent performance meeting criteria and packaging constraints with weight optimization. Brake disc is very important component in the brake system which is expected to withstand high braking torque and dissipate heat during braking event. In existing car to replace front drum brake with disc brake module, vehicle needs to undergo legislative verifications and certifications with respect to pedal effort, stopping distance and circuit failed conditions etc.
Technical Paper

Crash Pulse Characterization for Restraints System Performance Optimization

The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
Technical Paper

Thermal Protection of Rear Mounted Engine and Its Components Using a Ventilation Fan with Unique Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis Technique

The engine compartment of passenger car application contains various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the body temperature of individual component. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the durability or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategize thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and its components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECUs, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Fan Drive (HFD) Used in Commercial Application

Ever tightening emission limits and constant pressure for increasing engine power are resulting in increased engine operating temperature. This coupled with continuous drive for fuel economy improvement because of the stiff competition are forcing OEMs to explore alternative cooling solutions resulting in less power take off and quick response as cooling requirement shoots up. Aim of this paper is to analyze the relative benefits of incorporating a new cooling fan drive system concept over conventional viscous fan driven cooling system with step-less variable speed control independent of engine speed variation. Hydraulic fan drive system control fan rpm based on the fluid temperature as compared to air temperature in viscous coupling fan drive system. HFD system provides quick response when increase in coolant temperature is observed. HFD system in this way provide more control on fan rpm.
Technical Paper

Fiber Reinforced Plastic Durability: Nonlinear Multi-Scale Modeling for Structural Part Life Predictions

OEMs are seeking to develop vehicle light weighting strategies that will allow them to meet weight and fuel economy targets hence increasingly shifting their focus towards incorporating lighter material solutions at mass produced scales. Composites are seen by automotive manufacturers as the solution to lightweight vehicles without affecting their performance. More and more parts are made of short fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) as well as continuous fiber composites. However, replacing metals by composites requires a new design approach and a clear understanding of the composite behavior. This paradigm however requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Traditional design tools are not able to state accurately the composite material behavior and sometime leading to use high safety of factors and lack of confidence in the design.
Technical Paper

External Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient Prediction of Full Scale Passenger Car Based on Scale Model Assessment

Aerodynamics performance evaluation of passenger cars is important during early vehicle development phase as it influences fuel economy, vehicle stability and drivability. Usually during initial styling phase, scale model is prepared and tested in wind tunnel to check aerodynamic performance like drag coefficient and these are used to predict aerodynamic performance of full scale model as testing on full scale model is costly and time consuming. To ensure its correctness, it is important to understand difference in physics from scale model to full scale model. In predicting full vehicle aerodynamics performance from scale model assessment; importance of Reynolds number, effect of geometric scaling on flow i.e. flow separation and wake zone change needs to be understood and addressed. This paper discusses about effect of scaling on aerodynamic flow behavior and drag.
Technical Paper

Development and Prediction of Vehicle Drag Coefficient Using OpenFoam CFD Tool

Vehicle aerodynamic design has a critical impact on fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Reducing aerodynamic wind resistance of the vehicle's exterior shape and reducing losses associated with requirements for engine compartment cooling through vehicle front openings plays key role in achieving desired aerodynamic efficiency. Today fairly large number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are being performed during the vehicle aerodynamic design and development process and it is rapidly increasing day by day. Vehicle aerodynamic design and development process involves mainly aerodynamic shape development, aerodynamic optimizations of vehicle external components (side view mirror, spoilers, underbody shield etc.) and number of” what if studies during preliminary design process. Licensing costs of the available commercial CFD simulation solver has significant impact on product development cost when numbers of aerodynamic simulations expand.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate Impact of Power Steering on Fuel Economy and Optimization

Vehicle manufacturers strive hard to achieve best in class fuel economy. Apart from light weighting of the structures, driveline optimization and reduction of tire rolling resistance, tapping of parasitic losses is also important and helps to optimize the design of auxiliary power consuming systems. One of such system studied in this work is power steering system. The effect of parasitic losses on fuel economy is predominant for small commercial vehicle compare to heavy vehicles. The evaluation of deterioration in the fuel economy due to implementation of power steering system on one of the small commercial vehicle is carried out using multiple virtual simulation tools. Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed.
Technical Paper

Energy Based Analytical Study of Effect of Engine Calibration, Clutch Modulation on the Life of Dry Clutch in View of City Traffic Using Road Load Data

Single plate dry clutch is one of the most abuse components in the vehicle. With the growing population of traffic in cities, useful life of clutch is affected drastically which is evident from the rise in complaints on clutch from metropolitan cities. The governing design parameter, which affects the life of clutch, is the energy dissipated in clutch per unit area of friction lining of clutch disc. The life of clutch is affected by many factors like vehicle weight, engine torque, driveline ratios, friction lining, size of clutch, which are taken into consideration during design stage of the clutch. Apart from these factors, one more factor, engine calibration, affects the clutch life drastically. However, it is not taken into consideration during design stage owing to its inherent nature as it gets matured over the vehicle development program.
Technical Paper

Grit Blasting on Synchronizer - To Resolve Early Crashing Complaint

In today’s automobile market, most OEMs use manual transmission for cars. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gears can result into customer dissatisfaction and will affect the brand image. Synchronizer is a vital subsystem for precise gear shifting mechanism. Based on vehicle application selection of synchronizer for given inertia and speed difference is a key factor which decides overall shift quality of gearbox. For more demanding driver abuse conditions like skip shifting, conventional brass synchronizers have proved inadequate for required speed difference and gear inertia, which eventually results into synchronizer crashing and affects driving performance. To increase synchronizer performance of multi-cone compact brass synchronizer, a ‘Grit blasting process’ has been added. These components tested with an accelerated test plan successfully.
Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Technical Paper

Body Block FE Model Development and Correlation with Physical Tests

Steering column and steering wheel are critical safety components in vehicle interior environment. Steering system needs to be designed to absorb occupant impact energy in the event of crash thereby reducing the risk of injury to the occupant. This is more critical for non-airbag vehicle versions. To evaluate the steering system performance, Body block impact test is defined in IS11939 standard [1]. Nowadays for product development, CAE is being extensively used to reduce development cycle time and minimize number of prototypes required for physical validation. In order to design the steering system to meet the Body Block performance requirements, a detailed FE model of Body Block impactor is required. The static stiffness and moment of inertia of body block are defined in SAE J244a [2]. The reference data available in SAE J244a is not sufficient to develop a Body Block model that would represent the physical impactor.