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Technical Paper

Suspension Testing using Wheel Forces on a 3 DOF Road Load Simulator

2008-04-14
2008-01-0223
The use of Wheel Force Transducers (WFTs) to acquire data for laboratory simulation is becoming standard industry practice. However, in test rigs where we have only the suspension module and not the complete vehicle, does the reproduction of the orthogonal forces and moments at the wheel centre guarantee an accurate replication of the fatigue damage in the suspension components? The objective of this paper is to review the simulation methodology for a highly non-linear suspension in a 3 DOF (degree-of-freedom) suspension test rig in which the simulation was carried out using only the three orthogonal loads and vertical displacement. The damage at critical locations in the suspension is compared with that on the road and an assessment of the simulation using the WFT is made based on a comparison of the damage on the road vs. the rig.
Technical Paper

Approach for Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Exhaust System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2666
The automotive industry is heading in the direction of signing off the exhaust system durability based on computer simulation rather than rig simulation and physical vehicle testing. This is due to the cost, time and availability of prototype vehicles and test track. Use of Finite Element Method (FEM) enables to assure the structural integrity of the exhaust system and also contribute to better understanding of the system behavior in the various operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. This paper deals with dynamic analysis of a modular automotive exhaust system where it is directly mounted on power train pack. Selection of dynamic loads, processing of the test data, and effect of assembly loads along with material property variation due to temperature are explained. It also includes validation of the CAE model, prediction of probable failure locations and improving the design based on analysis outcome.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

2010-04-12
2010-01-0276
EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
Technical Paper

Simulation of Restart Gradability of a Manual Transmission Vehicle Using AVL-CRUISE

2013-10-14
2013-01-2516
1 With increasing fuel price, the power train size is on a downward trend. For Fuel Economy maximization, the engine capacity and reduction ratios are getting reduced. So gradability of a vehicle is becoming a trade off factor for the power train size finalization in a car. At the same time OEMs are working hard to maintain profitability by reducing development and operational cost and time. In this complexly competitive scenario in automobile manufacturing, simulation is gaining an upper hand over actual testing as simulation consumes lesser time and resource as compared to actual testing. This paper is aimed at developing a simulation technique for restart or stop and start gradability which is a very critical parameter for finalization of engine torque characteristics and power train configuration. The simulation is done on AVL-CRUISE software.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Engine Mounting System for Reduction in Lateral Shake and Drive Away Shudder on Vehicle

2017-06-05
2017-01-1822
In this study we will be discussing two issues related to vibrations which effect car owners. The first one, called lateral shake, can be described as a lateral vibration felt by customer in low speed of around 1200rpm, when vehicle shakes severely in Y-direction. The vibration is significantly felt at the thighs of passengers. A 16DOF rigid body model is established to simulate the power train & body system. The second vibration issue, called drive away shudder (also known as clutch judder/chatter/shudder) is a vibration felt by customers at the time of marching off. The vibration is significantly felt at the time of clutch engagement as a shiver in vehicle. While the common solution of shudder is to optimize clutch friction & engagement, in this study solution has been provided by optimizing the power train mounting system. Clutch shudder is observed on a medium sized car when driven in the range of 10-20 Km/h.
Technical Paper

AMT Reverse Gear Engagement Dynamics and Control

2019-01-09
2019-26-0046
Now a day’s automated manual transmissions (AMT) are getting popular because of hassle-free gear shifting and improved fuel economy. OEMs are converting their existing manual gearbox to AMT gearbox with solution like hydraulic or electric AMT kit that replaces the manual shift mechanism to automated actuators. Generally, in manual gearbox, the operational principal of reverse gear is sliding mesh. Due to sliding mesh gear arrangement, it can create interruption for gearshift while controlling shift actuators. In this paper, reverse gear shift arrangement and its operational dynamics at different operating condition has been studied and analyzed in detail. Based on status of vehicle, to ease the gearshift, engagement flow process proposed. The control methods that increases probability of smooth and easier shifting in all operating condition discussed in detail. The developed control algorithm discussed along with its implementation on real vehicle and results.
Technical Paper

A Feedback and Feedforward Control Algorithm for a Manual Transmission Vehicle Simulation Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1356
Authors were challenged with a task of developing a full vehicle simulation model, with a target to simulate the electrical system performance and perform digital tests like Battery Charge Balance, in addition to the fuel efficiency estimation. A vehicle is a complicated problem or domain to model, due to the complexities of subsystems. Even more difficult task is to have a control algorithm which controls the vehicle model with the required control signals to follow the test specification. Particularly, simulating the control of a vehicle with a manual transmission is complicated due to many associated control signals (Throttle, Brake and Clutch) and interruptions like gear changes. In this paper, the development of a full vehicle model aimed at the assessment of electrical system performance of the vehicle is discussed in brief.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Test Schedule for Clutch Using Road Load Data Analysis and Energy Dissipation as Basis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0404
During every clutch engagement energy is dissipated in clutch assembly because of relative slippage of clutch disc w.r.t. flywheel and pressure plate. Energy dissipated in clutch is governed by many design parameters like driveline configuration of the vehicle vis-a-vis vehicle mass, and operational parameters like road conditions, traffic conditions. Clutch burning failure, which is the major failure mode of clutch assembly, is governed by energy dissipation phenomenon during clutch engagement. Clutch undergoes different duty cycles during usage in city traffic, highways or hilly regions during its lifetime. A test schedule was derived using energy dissipated during every clutch engagement event as a base and using road load data collected on the vehicle. Road load data was collected in different road mix conditions comprised of city traffic, highway, hilly region, rough road for few hundred kilometers.
Technical Paper

An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

2018-04-03
2018-01-0609
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India. The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Life Test Schedule for Rig Testing of Live Axles Based on Road Load Data and Its Correlation with Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0099
Drive components of live axle undergoes different loading conditions during field usage depending upon terrain conditions, vehicle loading and traffic conditions etc. During vehicle running, drive components of axle experiences variable torque levels, which results in the fatigue damage of the components. Testing of these drive components of axle on test rig for endurance life is an imperative part of axle development, owing to limitations of vehicle testing because of time and cost involved. Similarly, correlating field failures with rig testing is equally critical. In such situation, if a test cycle is derived correlating the field usage, rig testing can be effectively used for accelerated life testing and reliability prediction of these components. An approach is presented in the paper wherein test cycle is derived based on the data collected on vehicle in the field under service road and loading conditions.
Journal Article

Practical Approach to Develop Low Cost, Energy Efficient Cabin Heating for Extreme Cold Operating Environment

2011-04-12
2011-01-0132
In cold climatic regions (25°C below zero) thermal comfort inside vehicle cabin plays a vital role for safety of driver and crew members. This comfortable and safe environment can be achieved either by utilizing available heat of engine coolant in conjunction with optimized in cab air circulation or by deploying more costly options such as auxiliary heaters, e.g., Fuel Fired, Positive Temperature Coefficient heaters. The typical vehicle cabin heating system effectiveness depends on optimized warm/hot air discharge through instrument panel and foot vents, air directivity to occupant's chest and foot zones and overall air flow distribution inside the vehicle cabin. On engine side it depends on engine coolant warm up and flow rate, coolant pipe routing, coolant leakage through engine thermostat and heater core construction and capacity.
Technical Paper

Hill Start Assistance Developed for Buses Equipped with AMT

2016-04-05
2016-01-1111
The AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of both MT (Manual Transmission) and AT (Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, with the AMT, clutch pedal is removed and therefore, driver can’t perceive the clutch position, making it difficult to hill-start with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Reduction of Brake Squeal and Groan Noise

2015-09-27
2015-01-2687
Brake noise is one of the common complaints and an irritant not just for the vehicle occupants but equally for the passers-by. Brake noise is actually vibration that is occurring at a frequency that is audible to the human ear. This occurrence of brake noise like brake squeal (>1 kHz) and groan (<1 kHz) is often very intense and can lead to vehicle complaints. During a brake noise event, vehicle basic structure and suspension system components are excited due to brake system vibration and result in a resonance that is perceived in the form of a noise. Proposed work discusses an experimental study that is carried out on a vehicle for addressing concern regarding disc brake squeal and groan noise. Based on the preliminary inputs, vehicle level study was carried out in order to simulate the problem and objectively capture its severity.
Technical Paper

Augmenting Light Weighting Horizon in Automotive

2014-04-28
2014-28-0023
Better ride and comfort, enhanced safety, reliability and durability, lower running cost as well as cost of ownership continue to be challenges for automotive OEMs. Higher fuel efficiency is considered as USP not only for lower running cost but also is hygiene factor from sustainability point of view. This has necessitated the need for Augmenting Light weighting horizon in automotive OEMs. Augmenting this leads to invention of innovative materials and processes for emerging cost competitive market. This paper focuses on technology efforts towards augmenting light weighting Horizon in Automotive. Light weighting concepts being explored by OEMs with the help of automotive component manufacturers from Powertrain - Engines & Transmission, Chassis and Suspension are discussed.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Prediction in Safety Simulations Using MAT-240 Material Model in LS-DYNA

2015-01-14
2015-26-0165
Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge number of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diagnostics, End of Line and System Performance Checks for Micro Hybrid Battery Management Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0291
Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
Technical Paper

Performance Driven Package Feasibility of Side Restraints Using KBE Tools

2013-01-09
2013-26-0027
Integrating safety features may lead to changes in vehicle interior component designs. Considering this complexity, design guidelines have to take care of aspects which may help in package feasibility studies that consider systems performance requirements. Occupant restraints systems for protection in side crashes generally comprise of Side Airbag (SAB) and Curtain Airbag (IC). These components have to be integrated considering design and styling aspects of interior trims, seat contours and body structure for performance efficient package definition. In side crashes, occupant injury risk increases due to hard contact with intruding structure. This risk could be minimized by cushioning the occupant contact through provision of SAB and Inflatable IC. This paper explains the methodology for deciding the package definitions using Knowlwdge Based Engineering (KBE) tools.
Technical Paper

Development of Cost Effective Footpad to Mitigate Lower Leg Injury During Anti Vehicle IED Blast

2013-04-08
2013-01-1246
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Anti-Tank (AT) mines are a significant threat for military vehicles and their occupants. These explosive devices are designed for the destruction and damage of armored and other vehicles, by using them in battle fields on routes of army vehicles. The blast event results in effects like shockwave, fragments, fire, gases, blast overpressure as well as the vertical impulse load. A blast event affects occupants inside the vehicle in the form of various types of injuries (lower leg, spinal, chest, head etc) and trauma. The Lower leg is the foremost injured body region in a blast event. The term lower leg is used to designate the tibia, fibula and the foot/ankle complex in this paper. Detonations occurring under a vehicle produce high velocity floorboard flutter/deformation and transmit axial loads to lower leg and create injuries.
Technical Paper

Clutch Hysteresis Maximization for Elimination of Gear Rattle in a Passenger Bus

2013-01-09
2013-26-0100
The acceptable noise and vibration performance is one of the most important requirements in a passenger bus as it is intended for widest spectrum of passengers covering all age groups. Gear rattle, being one of the critical factors for NVH and durability, plays a vital role in passenger comfort inside vehicle. The phenomenon of gear rattle happens due to irregularity in engine torque, causing impacts between the teeth of unloaded gear pairs of a gearbox which produce vibrations giving rise to this unacceptable acoustic response. In depth assessment of the dynamic behavior of systems and related components required to eliminate gear rattle. During normal running conditions, abnormal in-cab noise was perceived in a bus. Initial subjective evaluation revealed that the intensity was high during acceleration and deceleration. Objective measurements and analysis of the in-cab noise and vibration measurements had indicated that the noise is mainly due to gear rattling.
Technical Paper

Challenges to Meet New Noise Regulations and New Noise Limits for M and N Category Vehicles

2013-01-09
2013-26-0107
New noise regulations, with reduced noise limits, have been proposed by UN-ECE. A new method which aims at representing urban driving of the vehicles more closely on roads is proposed and is considerably different from the existing one (IS 3028:1998). It is more complex; we also found that some of the low powered vehicles can not be tested as per this method. The paper proposes ways of improvement in the test method. The new noise reduction policy options will have a considerable impact on compliance of many categories of vehicles. Technological challenges, before the manufacturers, to meet all performance needs of the vehicle along with the cost of development will be critical to meet the new noise limits in the proposed time frame.
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