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Technical Paper

A Study on Improvements in Side Impact Test vs CAE Structural Correlation

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) plays an important role in the product development. Now a days major decisions like concept selection and design sign off are taken based on CAE. All the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are putting consistent efforts to improve accuracy of the CAE results. In recent years confidence on CAE prediction has been increased mainly because of good correlation of CAE predictions with the test results. Defining proper correlation criteria and using a systematic approach helps significantly in building the overall confidence level for predictions given by CAE simulations. Representation of manufacturing effects on material properties and material failure in the simulation is still a big challenge for achieving a good CAE correlation. This paper describes side impact test vs CAE correlation. The important parameters affecting the CAE correlation were discussed.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Approach for Optimization of On-Board Diagnostic Strategies for Fault Management

As the vehicle functions are getting distributed over multiple ECUs in order to realize various complex control functions, the need for sophisticated on-board diagnostic strategies are increasing in automotive domain, leading to a significant amount of hardware and software implementations for fault management inside various ECUs in the vehicle. This paper proposes optimized vehicle level approach for fault management strategies, wherein a centralized intelligent Gateway Module is proposed in the vehicle network architecture, which will be responsible for fault management of the complete vehicle in a chronological sequence. This Gateway Module will thereby have the possibility to group a cluster of faults raised by different ECUs and correlate them meaningfully to guide the operator towards root cause of the fault.
Journal Article

Analytical Model for Human Thermal Comfort in Passenger Vehicles

An analytical model, which takes care of thermal interactions of human body with surroundings via basic heat transfer modes like conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation, is compiled. The analytical model takes measurable inputs from surroundings and specific human parameters. Using these parameters a quick calculation entailing all heat transfer modes ensues in net heat exchange of human body with surroundings. Its magnitude and direction decides the qualitative indication of thermal comfort of concerned human being. The present model is scaled on actual human beings by noting the subjective assessment in comfortable as well as uncomfortable surroundings. As a part of validation, it is implemented in an actual Climatic Wind Tunnel Heater test, where temperatures and other parameters on different parts of the body are noted down and fed to the model as input. Output of the equation is then compared with the subjective assessment of human beings.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Silencer for Improved Sound Quality and Optimum Back Pressure

For an automotive exhaust system, noise level and back pressure are the most important parameters for passenger comfort and engine performance respectively. The sound quality perception of the existing silencer design was unacceptable, although the back pressure measured was below the target limit. To improve the existing design, few concepts were prepared by changing the internal elements of silencer only. The design constraints were the silencer shell dimensions, volume of silencer, inlet pipe and outlet tailpipe positions, which had to be kept same as that of the existing base design. The sound quality signal replaying and synthesizing was performed to define the desired sound quality. The numerical simulation involves 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with appropriate boundary condition having less numerical diffusions to predict the back pressure. The various silencer concepts developed with this preliminary analysis, was then experimentally verified with the numerical data.
Technical Paper

Development & Calibration of a Rain-Light Sensor and Controller for Indian Market

Modern vehicles complexity is increasing to meet the demands of user. Automatic wiper and headlamp activation system using rain light sensor, (RLS) is one of the popular customer requirement. RLS is a combination of an infrared rain sensor and an optical light sensor. The RLS and controller operate the front wiper once it detects rain droplets on the windscreen. It switches on the headlamps automatically when while vehicles enter in to the tunnel. During integration of a rain light sensor on a vehicle the following should be considered: customer usage pattern, environmental factors, light intensity, raining pattern and vehicle architecture limitations. This paper illustrates the methodology used calibrated a pre-developed rain light sensor for specific markets like India.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Air Intake System and Exhaust System for Better Performance of Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Gasoline engines with Multi point fuel injection (MPFI) technology are being developed with naturally aspirated and/or turbocharged engines. Wherein a MPFI and turbo charged combination engines have certain challenges during development stages. One of the important challenge is design of air intake and exhaust system. With MPFI turbocharged engine combination, the under bonnet heat management is crucial task for drivability. The heat management of air intake plays a vital role in drivability part therefore a design layout of air intake path is an important aspect. Drivability can be categorized as low end, mid-range and top end drivability. Turbocharged MPFI engines have a typical phenomenon of ‘Lag in response’ in the low-end region. This ‘Lag in response’ phenomenon at low-end drivability region can be overcome through optimization of air intake system and optimization of exhaust back pressure.
Technical Paper

A Feedback and Feedforward Control Algorithm for a Manual Transmission Vehicle Simulation Model

Authors were challenged with a task of developing a full vehicle simulation model, with a target to simulate the electrical system performance and perform digital tests like Battery Charge Balance, in addition to the fuel efficiency estimation. A vehicle is a complicated problem or domain to model, due to the complexities of subsystems. Even more difficult task is to have a control algorithm which controls the vehicle model with the required control signals to follow the test specification. Particularly, simulating the control of a vehicle with a manual transmission is complicated due to many associated control signals (Throttle, Brake and Clutch) and interruptions like gear changes. In this paper, the development of a full vehicle model aimed at the assessment of electrical system performance of the vehicle is discussed in brief.
Technical Paper

Hill Start Assistance Developed for Buses Equipped with AMT

The AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of both MT (Manual Transmission) and AT (Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, with the AMT, clutch pedal is removed and therefore, driver can’t perceive the clutch position, making it difficult to hill-start with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Test Schedule for Clutch Using Road Load Data Analysis and Energy Dissipation as Basis

During every clutch engagement energy is dissipated in clutch assembly because of relative slippage of clutch disc w.r.t. flywheel and pressure plate. Energy dissipated in clutch is governed by many design parameters like driveline configuration of the vehicle vis-a-vis vehicle mass, and operational parameters like road conditions, traffic conditions. Clutch burning failure, which is the major failure mode of clutch assembly, is governed by energy dissipation phenomenon during clutch engagement. Clutch undergoes different duty cycles during usage in city traffic, highways or hilly regions during its lifetime. A test schedule was derived using energy dissipated during every clutch engagement event as a base and using road load data collected on the vehicle. Road load data was collected in different road mix conditions comprised of city traffic, highway, hilly region, rough road for few hundred kilometers.
Technical Paper

Shock Tube Simulation in LS-DYNA for Material Failure Characterization

Shock tube is used to simulate blast loading conditions on materials for studying the failure behavior of different materials under blast pressures on smaller scale. This paper describes CAE method developed for simulating shock tube experiment in LS-DYNA3D environment. The objective of shock tube simulation is to characterize material failure parameters so as to predict risk of material failure in full vehicle blast simulations while developing vehicle for blast protection applications. The paper describes modeling of shock wave and its interaction with test specimen in shock tube environment. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques are applied to simulate shock tube experiment in LS-DYNA3D and simulation predictions are compared with experimental test data. CAE correlation studies were carried out with respect to incident and reflected pressures in shock tube, deformation and plastic strains on test specimen, shock wave velocity etc.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Steering Column Layout and UJ Phase Angle to Enhance Vehicle Dynamics Performance

Vehicle dynamics is one of the most important vehicle attributes. It is classified into three domains, the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral dynamics. This paper focuses on optimizing the lateral vehicle dynamics which is driven by the straight ahead controllability and cornering controllability of the vehicle. One of the important parameters that dictates these sub-attributes is the steering ratio. Therefore, designing the right steering ratio is critical to meet the vehicle “specific” targets. Significant amount of work has been done by many researchers on variable steering ratio by implementing variable gear ratio (VGR) rack, active steering, and steer-by-wire systems. This paper discusses the methodology and considerations to optimize the steering ratio for a constant gear ratio rack by optimizing the steering column layout, viz., orientation and the phase angle in universal joints.
Journal Article

Body Induced Boom Noise Control by Hybrid Integrated Approach for a Passenger Car

Vehicle incab booming perception, a low frequency response of the structure to the various excitations presents a challenging task for the NVH engineers. The excitation to the structure causing boom can either be power train induced, depending upon the number of cylinders or the road inputs, while transfer paths for the excitation is mainly through the power train mounts or the suspension attachments to the body. The body responds to those input excitations by virtue of the dynamic behavior mainly governed by its modal characteristics. This paper explains in detail an integrated approach, of both experimental and numerical techniques devised to investigate the mechanism for boom noise generation. It is therefore important, to understand the modal behavior of the structure. The modal characteristics from the structural modal test enable to locate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the body, which are likely to get excited due to the operating excitations.
Technical Paper

Suspension Testing using Wheel Forces on a 3 DOF Road Load Simulator

The use of Wheel Force Transducers (WFTs) to acquire data for laboratory simulation is becoming standard industry practice. However, in test rigs where we have only the suspension module and not the complete vehicle, does the reproduction of the orthogonal forces and moments at the wheel centre guarantee an accurate replication of the fatigue damage in the suspension components? The objective of this paper is to review the simulation methodology for a highly non-linear suspension in a 3 DOF (degree-of-freedom) suspension test rig in which the simulation was carried out using only the three orthogonal loads and vertical displacement. The damage at critical locations in the suspension is compared with that on the road and an assessment of the simulation using the WFT is made based on a comparison of the damage on the road vs. the rig.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Restart Gradability of a Manual Transmission Vehicle Using AVL-CRUISE

1 With increasing fuel price, the power train size is on a downward trend. For Fuel Economy maximization, the engine capacity and reduction ratios are getting reduced. So gradability of a vehicle is becoming a trade off factor for the power train size finalization in a car. At the same time OEMs are working hard to maintain profitability by reducing development and operational cost and time. In this complexly competitive scenario in automobile manufacturing, simulation is gaining an upper hand over actual testing as simulation consumes lesser time and resource as compared to actual testing. This paper is aimed at developing a simulation technique for restart or stop and start gradability which is a very critical parameter for finalization of engine torque characteristics and power train configuration. The simulation is done on AVL-CRUISE software.
Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
Technical Paper

Approach for Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Exhaust System

The automotive industry is heading in the direction of signing off the exhaust system durability based on computer simulation rather than rig simulation and physical vehicle testing. This is due to the cost, time and availability of prototype vehicles and test track. Use of Finite Element Method (FEM) enables to assure the structural integrity of the exhaust system and also contribute to better understanding of the system behavior in the various operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. This paper deals with dynamic analysis of a modular automotive exhaust system where it is directly mounted on power train pack. Selection of dynamic loads, processing of the test data, and effect of assembly loads along with material property variation due to temperature are explained. It also includes validation of the CAE model, prediction of probable failure locations and improving the design based on analysis outcome.
Technical Paper

A Simple, Cost Effective, Method of Evaluating Bump Steer and Brake Steer, and Achieving Correlation with ADAMS Analysis

This paper proposes a cost effective method, with simple techniques, to evaluate Bump Steer and Brake Steer on a rigid axle vehicle under dynamic conditions. A relationship between calculated values, measured values and a subjective assessment of the vehicle lateral deviation is established. An array, of inter-relationship of the parameters such as offset of steering arm, draglink length, front spring stiffness, height of spring hanger bracket is done. Percentage of influence of the parameter change on the performance of the vehicle is evaluated and standard statistical analysis is used to arrive at inter-relationship of various parameters and ranking of their influence on lateral deviation of the vehicle under braking is established, there by resulting in reduction in iterative process. The results obtained display a good correlation with ADAMS Analysis to the tune of 90% and are in agreement with subjective assessment.
Technical Paper

Combustion Mechanical Breakdown: A Comparison of the Multiple Regression Method versus the Coherence Method for a HSDI Diesel Powertrain

In the automotive industry there are now several methodologies available to estimate the Combustion Mechanical Breakdown (CMB) of engine radiated noise. This paper compares the results of two different CMB analysis methodologies (multiple regression vs. coherence) performed on a HSDI diesel powertrain installed in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) and highlights the specific differences in the way each method defines combustion and mechanical noise.
Technical Paper

Experiments Planning for Robust Design through CAE

This paper presents a systematic approach for designing an experiment in situations where expensive and time consuming computer simulations are used to evaluate product characteristics. In the presence of many design parameters, the critical step is to find the best possible experimental set up with minimum number of simulations. Usually in such situations, designers use their intuition and experience to carry out a number of simulation runs and choose the design that gives better performance. This intuitive approach can be considerably improved by using statistical methods. “Classical experimental designs” were compared with “space filling designs” in terms of their results and requirements. A typical clutch booster bracket is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Application of CFD Methodology to Reduce the Pressure Drop and Water Entry in the Air Intake System of Turbocharged Engine

When an automobile negotiates a flooded region, water is splashed due to the rotational motion of the wheels. This water enters the air intake system of the turbocharged intercooled engine along with air and can pass through the turbocharger, intercooler and enter the engine. As water is an incompressible fluid, the piston cannot compress water inside the cylinder which leads to connecting rod bending and severe engine damage. This paper explains how the same has been resolved using CFD methodology and proposes the re-designed model of mud cover as a solution to this problem. The entire process has been streamlined and major time and cost reduction achieved by using simulation for optimization. The simulated results have been validated by extensive trials for correlation and outdoor tests for durability. Same analysis technique is used as a template to modify the air intake system.