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Technical Paper

Suspension Testing using Wheel Forces on a 3 DOF Road Load Simulator

The use of Wheel Force Transducers (WFTs) to acquire data for laboratory simulation is becoming standard industry practice. However, in test rigs where we have only the suspension module and not the complete vehicle, does the reproduction of the orthogonal forces and moments at the wheel centre guarantee an accurate replication of the fatigue damage in the suspension components? The objective of this paper is to review the simulation methodology for a highly non-linear suspension in a 3 DOF (degree-of-freedom) suspension test rig in which the simulation was carried out using only the three orthogonal loads and vertical displacement. The damage at critical locations in the suspension is compared with that on the road and an assessment of the simulation using the WFT is made based on a comparison of the damage on the road vs. the rig.
Technical Paper

Approach for Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Exhaust System

The automotive industry is heading in the direction of signing off the exhaust system durability based on computer simulation rather than rig simulation and physical vehicle testing. This is due to the cost, time and availability of prototype vehicles and test track. Use of Finite Element Method (FEM) enables to assure the structural integrity of the exhaust system and also contribute to better understanding of the system behavior in the various operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. This paper deals with dynamic analysis of a modular automotive exhaust system where it is directly mounted on power train pack. Selection of dynamic loads, processing of the test data, and effect of assembly loads along with material property variation due to temperature are explained. It also includes validation of the CAE model, prediction of probable failure locations and improving the design based on analysis outcome.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Noise and Vibration Reduction of a Sports Utility Vehicle by Body-Mount Dynamic Stiffness Optimization

Among the key parameters that decide the success of a vehicle in today's competitive market are quietness of passenger cabin (in respect of both airborne and structure-borne noise) and low levels of disturbing vibration felt by the occupants. To control these values in body-on-frame construction vehicles, it is necessary to identify major transfer paths and optimize the isolation characteristics of the elastomeric mounts placed at several locations between a frame and the enclosed passenger cabin of the vehicle. These body mounts play a dominant role in controlling the structure-borne noise and vibrations at floor and seat rails resulting from engine and driveline excitations, and they are also a vital element in the vehicle ride comfort tuning across a wide frequency range. In the work described in this paper, transfer path tracking was used to identify root cause for the higher noise and vibration levels of a diesel-powered sports utility vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design, Simulation & Optimization of an Air Intake System to Reduce Induction Noise

Air intake system (AIS) plays a major role in reducing the noise level in passenger car compartment, which has become an important requirement due to increasing customer expectation for better in cab noise. The ideal air intake system design should have minimum possible noise at snorkel entry point which ultimately contributes in cabin noise. There are different techniques that are implemented for an air intake system noise reduction e.g. choosing proper location of air entry suction point in engine bay compartment, suitable design for air filter box (volume), duct designs etc. Further design improvement are possible with an addition of tuned resonators in the system. An addition of resonator have major effect seen in reducing air induction noise and to meet target Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). But at the same time, selecting the correct type of resonator, its position & volume, frequency/s band at which resonator is tuned are important parameters.
Technical Paper

A Feedback and Feedforward Control Algorithm for a Manual Transmission Vehicle Simulation Model

Authors were challenged with a task of developing a full vehicle simulation model, with a target to simulate the electrical system performance and perform digital tests like Battery Charge Balance, in addition to the fuel efficiency estimation. A vehicle is a complicated problem or domain to model, due to the complexities of subsystems. Even more difficult task is to have a control algorithm which controls the vehicle model with the required control signals to follow the test specification. Particularly, simulating the control of a vehicle with a manual transmission is complicated due to many associated control signals (Throttle, Brake and Clutch) and interruptions like gear changes. In this paper, the development of a full vehicle model aimed at the assessment of electrical system performance of the vehicle is discussed in brief.
Technical Paper

An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India. The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly.
Journal Article

Study of Frequency Characteristics of Vehicle Motions for the Derivation of Inherent Jerk

Jerk in a vehicle is a feel of user which appears due to sudden acceleration changes. The amplitude and frequency components of the jerk defines quality of an engine or an AMT calibration tuning. Traditional jerk evaluation methods use amplitude (peak) of the jerk as a performance index and its frequencies are either used as weighing factor with amplitude or not taken into account. A method is proposed in this paper to quantify and differentiate the non-acceptable level of jerk which is perceivable to human body. Jerk is obtained by differentiating the acceleration data which contains the frequencies in the lower to higher range. Differentiation of such signal causes an amplification of undesired noise in both analog and digital circuits. This results in significant loss or disturbances in the useful data.
Journal Article

Body Induced Boom Noise Control by Hybrid Integrated Approach for a Passenger Car

Vehicle incab booming perception, a low frequency response of the structure to the various excitations presents a challenging task for the NVH engineers. The excitation to the structure causing boom can either be power train induced, depending upon the number of cylinders or the road inputs, while transfer paths for the excitation is mainly through the power train mounts or the suspension attachments to the body. The body responds to those input excitations by virtue of the dynamic behavior mainly governed by its modal characteristics. This paper explains in detail an integrated approach, of both experimental and numerical techniques devised to investigate the mechanism for boom noise generation. It is therefore important, to understand the modal behavior of the structure. The modal characteristics from the structural modal test enable to locate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the body, which are likely to get excited due to the operating excitations.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Flow Induced Noise Generated by Power Steering Pump Using Order Analysis

An interior sound quality is one of the major performance attribute, as consumer envisage this as class and luxury of the vehicle. With increasing demand of quietness inside the cabin, car manufactures started focusing on noise refinement and source separation. This demand enforces hydraulic power steering pump to reduce noise like Moan and Whine, especially in silent gasoline engine. To meet these requirements, extensive testing and in-depth analysis of noise data is performed. Structured process is established to isolate noises and feasible solutions are provided considering following analysis. a) Overall airborne noise measurement at driver ear level (DEL) inside the cabin using vehicle interior microphone. b) Airborne and Pressure pulsation test by sweeping pump speed and pressure at test bench. c) Waterfall analysis of pump at hemi anechoic chamber for order tracking and noise determination.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Prediction in Safety Simulations Using MAT-240 Material Model in LS-DYNA

Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge number of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate.
Technical Paper

Approach to Control the in Cab Noise without Affecting Passenger Comfort in AC Midi Buses

This paper discusses various fruitful iterations / experiments performed to reduce air flow induced noise without compromising on total air flow requirement for thermal comfort and ways to avoid heat ingress inside the bus. Also the paper discusses the devised process for noise reduction through front loading of computer aided engineering and computational fluid dynamics analysis. Air conditioning buses in light commercial vehicle (LCV) segment is growing market in India, especially for applications like staff pick-up and drop, school applications and private fleet owners. The air-conditioning system is typically mounted on bus roof top and located laterally and longitudinally at center. It is an easiest and most feasible way to package air conditioning system to cater the large passenger space (32 to 40 seats) with the conditioned air. This makes air conditioning duct design simple and commercially viable.
Technical Paper

Performance Driven Package Feasibility of Side Restraints Using KBE Tools

Integrating safety features may lead to changes in vehicle interior component designs. Considering this complexity, design guidelines have to take care of aspects which may help in package feasibility studies that consider systems performance requirements. Occupant restraints systems for protection in side crashes generally comprise of Side Airbag (SAB) and Curtain Airbag (IC). These components have to be integrated considering design and styling aspects of interior trims, seat contours and body structure for performance efficient package definition. In side crashes, occupant injury risk increases due to hard contact with intruding structure. This risk could be minimized by cushioning the occupant contact through provision of SAB and Inflatable IC. This paper explains the methodology for deciding the package definitions using Knowlwdge Based Engineering (KBE) tools.
Technical Paper

Development of Cost Effective Footpad to Mitigate Lower Leg Injury During Anti Vehicle IED Blast

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Anti-Tank (AT) mines are a significant threat for military vehicles and their occupants. These explosive devices are designed for the destruction and damage of armored and other vehicles, by using them in battle fields on routes of army vehicles. The blast event results in effects like shockwave, fragments, fire, gases, blast overpressure as well as the vertical impulse load. A blast event affects occupants inside the vehicle in the form of various types of injuries (lower leg, spinal, chest, head etc) and trauma. The Lower leg is the foremost injured body region in a blast event. The term lower leg is used to designate the tibia, fibula and the foot/ankle complex in this paper. Detonations occurring under a vehicle produce high velocity floorboard flutter/deformation and transmit axial loads to lower leg and create injuries.
Technical Paper

Clutch Hysteresis Maximization for Elimination of Gear Rattle in a Passenger Bus

The acceptable noise and vibration performance is one of the most important requirements in a passenger bus as it is intended for widest spectrum of passengers covering all age groups. Gear rattle, being one of the critical factors for NVH and durability, plays a vital role in passenger comfort inside vehicle. The phenomenon of gear rattle happens due to irregularity in engine torque, causing impacts between the teeth of unloaded gear pairs of a gearbox which produce vibrations giving rise to this unacceptable acoustic response. In depth assessment of the dynamic behavior of systems and related components required to eliminate gear rattle. During normal running conditions, abnormal in-cab noise was perceived in a bus. Initial subjective evaluation revealed that the intensity was high during acceleration and deceleration. Objective measurements and analysis of the in-cab noise and vibration measurements had indicated that the noise is mainly due to gear rattling.
Technical Paper

Challenges to Meet New Noise Regulations and New Noise Limits for M and N Category Vehicles

New noise regulations, with reduced noise limits, have been proposed by UN-ECE. A new method which aims at representing urban driving of the vehicles more closely on roads is proposed and is considerably different from the existing one (IS 3028:1998). It is more complex; we also found that some of the low powered vehicles can not be tested as per this method. The paper proposes ways of improvement in the test method. The new noise reduction policy options will have a considerable impact on compliance of many categories of vehicles. Technological challenges, before the manufacturers, to meet all performance needs of the vehicle along with the cost of development will be critical to meet the new noise limits in the proposed time frame.
Technical Paper

Shock Tube Simulation in LS-DYNA for Material Failure Characterization

Shock tube is used to simulate blast loading conditions on materials for studying the failure behavior of different materials under blast pressures on smaller scale. This paper describes CAE method developed for simulating shock tube experiment in LS-DYNA3D environment. The objective of shock tube simulation is to characterize material failure parameters so as to predict risk of material failure in full vehicle blast simulations while developing vehicle for blast protection applications. The paper describes modeling of shock wave and its interaction with test specimen in shock tube environment. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques are applied to simulate shock tube experiment in LS-DYNA3D and simulation predictions are compared with experimental test data. CAE correlation studies were carried out with respect to incident and reflected pressures in shock tube, deformation and plastic strains on test specimen, shock wave velocity etc.
Technical Paper

Combustion Mechanical Breakdown: A Comparison of the Multiple Regression Method versus the Coherence Method for a HSDI Diesel Powertrain

In the automotive industry there are now several methodologies available to estimate the Combustion Mechanical Breakdown (CMB) of engine radiated noise. This paper compares the results of two different CMB analysis methodologies (multiple regression vs. coherence) performed on a HSDI diesel powertrain installed in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) and highlights the specific differences in the way each method defines combustion and mechanical noise.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diagnostics, End of Line and System Performance Checks for Micro Hybrid Battery Management Systems

Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Restart Gradability of a Manual Transmission Vehicle Using AVL-CRUISE

1 With increasing fuel price, the power train size is on a downward trend. For Fuel Economy maximization, the engine capacity and reduction ratios are getting reduced. So gradability of a vehicle is becoming a trade off factor for the power train size finalization in a car. At the same time OEMs are working hard to maintain profitability by reducing development and operational cost and time. In this complexly competitive scenario in automobile manufacturing, simulation is gaining an upper hand over actual testing as simulation consumes lesser time and resource as compared to actual testing. This paper is aimed at developing a simulation technique for restart or stop and start gradability which is a very critical parameter for finalization of engine torque characteristics and power train configuration. The simulation is done on AVL-CRUISE software.