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Journal Article

An Intelligent Alternator Control Mechanism for Energy Recuperation and Fuel Efficiency Improvement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1750
With the current state of ever rising fuel prices and unavailability of affordable alternate technologies, significant research and development efforts have been invested in recent times towards improving fuel efficiency of vehicles powered with conventional internal combustion engines. To achieve this, a varied approach has been adopted by researchers to cover the entire energy chain including fuel quality, combustion quality, power generation efficiency, down-sizing, power consumption efficiency, etc. Apart from energy generation, distribution and consumption, another domain that has been subjected to significant scrutiny is energy recuperation or recovery. A moving vehicle and a running engine provide a number of opportunities for useful back-recovery and storage of energy. The most significant sources for recuperation are the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle or running engine and to a lesser extent the thermal energy from medium such as exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Restart Gradability of a Manual Transmission Vehicle Using AVL-CRUISE

2013-10-14
2013-01-2516
1 With increasing fuel price, the power train size is on a downward trend. For Fuel Economy maximization, the engine capacity and reduction ratios are getting reduced. So gradability of a vehicle is becoming a trade off factor for the power train size finalization in a car. At the same time OEMs are working hard to maintain profitability by reducing development and operational cost and time. In this complexly competitive scenario in automobile manufacturing, simulation is gaining an upper hand over actual testing as simulation consumes lesser time and resource as compared to actual testing. This paper is aimed at developing a simulation technique for restart or stop and start gradability which is a very critical parameter for finalization of engine torque characteristics and power train configuration. The simulation is done on AVL-CRUISE software.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cabin Comfort in Air Conditioned Buses Using CFD

2014-04-01
2014-01-0699
The objective of the work presented in this paper is to provide an overall CFD evaluation and optimization study of cabin climate control of air-conditioned (AC) city buses. Providing passengers with a comfortable experience is one of the focal point of any bus manufacturer. However, detailed evaluation through testing alone is difficult and not possible during vehicle development. With increasing travel needs and continuous focus on improving passenger experience, CFD supplemented by testing plays an important role in assessing the cabin comfort. The focus of the study is to evaluate the effect of size, shape and number of free-flow and overhead vents on flow distribution inside the cabin. Numerical simulations were carried out using a commercially available CFD code, Fluent®. Realizable k - ε RANS turbulence model was used to model turbulence. Airflow results from numerical simulation were compared with the testing results to evaluate the reliability.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diagnostics, End of Line and System Performance Checks for Micro Hybrid Battery Management Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0291
Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
Journal Article

Practical Approach to Develop Low Cost, Energy Efficient Cabin Heating for Extreme Cold Operating Environment

2011-04-12
2011-01-0132
In cold climatic regions (25°C below zero) thermal comfort inside vehicle cabin plays a vital role for safety of driver and crew members. This comfortable and safe environment can be achieved either by utilizing available heat of engine coolant in conjunction with optimized in cab air circulation or by deploying more costly options such as auxiliary heaters, e.g., Fuel Fired, Positive Temperature Coefficient heaters. The typical vehicle cabin heating system effectiveness depends on optimized warm/hot air discharge through instrument panel and foot vents, air directivity to occupant's chest and foot zones and overall air flow distribution inside the vehicle cabin. On engine side it depends on engine coolant warm up and flow rate, coolant pipe routing, coolant leakage through engine thermostat and heater core construction and capacity.
Journal Article

A Case Study of Reaction Time Reduction of Vehicle Brake System

2011-09-18
2011-01-2379
There has to be a good co-relation/ relationship between the pedal effort applied, pedal travel, deceleration level achieved and stopping distance for “good brake feel”. Brake feel also depend upon the time lag between the force applied on brake pedal and the response of braking system. Hence “brake feel” can be improved by reducing the response time of the brake system. Many vehicles are having “poor brake feel” complaints, pertaining to the above mentioned reasons. This paper relates to an improved brake system for automobile in which reduction in reaction time was done by artificially increasing differential pressure head across vacuum booster diaphragm. Brake booster is given an input of compressed air to the valve body during actuation, thereby increasing the differential pressure across the diaphragm. The compressed air is bled from turbocharger-intercooler of the vehicle which is stored in a reservoir, with one way valve, while cruising.
Technical Paper

Performance Driven Package Feasibility of Side Restraints Using KBE Tools

2013-01-09
2013-26-0027
Integrating safety features may lead to changes in vehicle interior component designs. Considering this complexity, design guidelines have to take care of aspects which may help in package feasibility studies that consider systems performance requirements. Occupant restraints systems for protection in side crashes generally comprise of Side Airbag (SAB) and Curtain Airbag (IC). These components have to be integrated considering design and styling aspects of interior trims, seat contours and body structure for performance efficient package definition. In side crashes, occupant injury risk increases due to hard contact with intruding structure. This risk could be minimized by cushioning the occupant contact through provision of SAB and Inflatable IC. This paper explains the methodology for deciding the package definitions using Knowlwdge Based Engineering (KBE) tools.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Strategy for an Unaltered Mechanical Braking System of a Conventional Vehicle Converted into a Hybrid Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0155
Regenerative braking has become one of the major features for a hybrid vehicle as it converts brake energy into electrical energy storable into battery and leads to an increase in overall fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Traditional regenerative braking systems are designed such that the mechanical braking force from the friction brakes is varied in order to get maximum electric braking. This is the optimum method; however, such a system calls from electronics (Anti-lock Braking System) for regulation of mechanical braking leading to an increased cost. In this paper, the authors present a new strategy for implementing a regenerative brake strategy without changing the mechanical brake system of a conventional vehicle converted to a hybrid vehicle. The electric motor that serves as the traction motor or the Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system, is used for regenerative braking also. There is no change in the other vehicle specifications as compared to the conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper

Augmenting Light Weighting Horizon in Automotive

2014-04-28
2014-28-0023
Better ride and comfort, enhanced safety, reliability and durability, lower running cost as well as cost of ownership continue to be challenges for automotive OEMs. Higher fuel efficiency is considered as USP not only for lower running cost but also is hygiene factor from sustainability point of view. This has necessitated the need for Augmenting Light weighting horizon in automotive OEMs. Augmenting this leads to invention of innovative materials and processes for emerging cost competitive market. This paper focuses on technology efforts towards augmenting light weighting Horizon in Automotive. Light weighting concepts being explored by OEMs with the help of automotive component manufacturers from Powertrain - Engines & Transmission, Chassis and Suspension are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Cost Effective Footpad to Mitigate Lower Leg Injury During Anti Vehicle IED Blast

2013-04-08
2013-01-1246
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Anti-Tank (AT) mines are a significant threat for military vehicles and their occupants. These explosive devices are designed for the destruction and damage of armored and other vehicles, by using them in battle fields on routes of army vehicles. The blast event results in effects like shockwave, fragments, fire, gases, blast overpressure as well as the vertical impulse load. A blast event affects occupants inside the vehicle in the form of various types of injuries (lower leg, spinal, chest, head etc) and trauma. The Lower leg is the foremost injured body region in a blast event. The term lower leg is used to designate the tibia, fibula and the foot/ankle complex in this paper. Detonations occurring under a vehicle produce high velocity floorboard flutter/deformation and transmit axial loads to lower leg and create injuries.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Optimum Twist Beam Design Configuration for a New Generation Passenger Car

2007-08-05
2007-01-3562
It is customary to select a twist beam rear suspension for front wheel driven small and medium range passenger cars. Besides better primary / secondary ride comfort, roll stiffness tuning ability, ease of assembly & good packaging solutions than the conventional semi trailing arm/ rigid axle suspensions, twist beam suspension system accentuate the concentration required in placing & orienting the cross beam to achieve certain imperative kinematical characteristics. In order to make the solutions of the required kinematical targets viable, it is vital to have the packaging space and stress concentration within yield limits given the weight & cost targets. This paper presents the work done on twist beam type suspension for a new generation entry level B-Class hatchback vehicle developed. To reduce the time consumed in validation of different design proposals a virtual validation process was developed.
Technical Paper

Design of Cabin Suspension Characteristics of Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2008-04-14
2008-01-0265
In the commercial vehicle business, Tractor-trailer combination vehicles are mostly used for carrying heavy loads for longer distances. To improve operating economy of the vehicle by reducing turn around time, it becomes a necessity to have a better driving comfort level for the vehicles. In a Tractor-trailer combination vehicle, due to point load acting on the tractor, pitching effect on the cab is very dominant. To overcome this pitching effect, a fully suspended cabin (suspended at four points) has been designed in order to have better ride comfort as compared to the fixed cabin. This paper discusses some of the measures taken to reduce the overall cabin pitching effect on Tractor -trailer combination vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design of Commercial Vehicle Cooling Packages

2008-04-14
2008-01-0264
Optimization of vehicle engine cooling package with requisite heat rejection capacity plays a key role in achieving most fuel economy and also in meeting the stringent noise norms. A set of design and operating features from existing vehicle engine cooling systems is reviewed and evaluated for their potential to provide optimized engine cooling. The features reviewed states significant potential in engine performance but these are balanced by satisfying required engine cooling requirement. Sets of trials are carried out on said vehicle with dissimilar features of cooling packages and the results are evaluated. Fuel economy trials in performance mode are carried out on vehicle with well thought-out cooling package for healthier comparison.
Technical Paper

Hill Start Assistance Developed for Buses Equipped with AMT

2016-04-05
2016-01-1111
The AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of both MT (Manual Transmission) and AT (Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, with the AMT, clutch pedal is removed and therefore, driver can’t perceive the clutch position, making it difficult to hill-start with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Air Conditioned Buses

2015-01-14
2015-26-0044
This paper focuses on factors that enhance energy efficiency of air conditioning system on mid-sized, standard and premium buses with engine power from 125 to 280 HP. It covers aspects like light weighting of roof air conditioning system, usage of optimized ducting system with minimal resistance to blowers, deployment of rotary scroll compressor with fast idle control in place of reciprocating piston compressor. The scope of this paper covers AC compressors driven by main engine of vehicle/ bus, study related to auxiliary/donkey engine driven AC compressor is not considered. Context- In order to enhance fuel efficiency in buses an energy efficient air conditioning system should be deployed. This will lead to reduced parasitic load on the engine and translate into direct fuel saving.
Technical Paper

High Fidelity Modeling and HIL Porting of a Hybrid Electric Car Development

2015-01-14
2015-26-0011
A hybrid electric powertrain being a complex system requires analysis of all its subsystems to optimally utilize, size components for performance evaluation and control strategy development. An integrated high fidelity model of these can lower development costs, time and achieve the targeted performance while allowing for early redefinition of the system. A high fidelity model of a sedan car featuring chassis with longitudinal and lateral dynamics, suspension with joints, tires calculating longitudinal & lateral forces during vehicle motion, Engine model with combustion & dynamics of reciprocating and rotating components, Electric motors, Battery system, and gearbox with synchronizers and friction components was developed. Powertrain components were interconnected using 3D rotational flanges. Weight distribution was accomplished by appropriately locating various powertrain components using 3D supporting mounts, which help to study the mount forces as well.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Reduction of Brake Squeal and Groan Noise

2015-09-27
2015-01-2687
Brake noise is one of the common complaints and an irritant not just for the vehicle occupants but equally for the passers-by. Brake noise is actually vibration that is occurring at a frequency that is audible to the human ear. This occurrence of brake noise like brake squeal (>1 kHz) and groan (<1 kHz) is often very intense and can lead to vehicle complaints. During a brake noise event, vehicle basic structure and suspension system components are excited due to brake system vibration and result in a resonance that is perceived in the form of a noise. Proposed work discusses an experimental study that is carried out on a vehicle for addressing concern regarding disc brake squeal and groan noise. Based on the preliminary inputs, vehicle level study was carried out in order to simulate the problem and objectively capture its severity.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Torque Data Collection

2019-01-09
2019-26-0289
The traditional method of collecting the Road Torque Data of a vehicle is by instrumenting and running the vehicle on different road terrains. Every time, physical testing becomes tedious & most challenging task due to unavailability of unit under tests, kind of resource required and so on. However, in view of response to the fast emerging technology & limit less competition, it has become mandatory to develop & launch products in market within no time. In recent times, there is increased demand for physical road torque data measurements for a vehicle program based on its application and different powertrain configurations, which clearly shows that unless we front load the data to design it is practically impossible to meet the deadlines. Each of these measurements cost and consumes valuable resources of the company in collecting and analyzing the data.
Technical Paper

AMT Reverse Gear Engagement Dynamics and Control

2019-01-09
2019-26-0046
Now a day’s automated manual transmissions (AMT) are getting popular because of hassle-free gear shifting and improved fuel economy. OEMs are converting their existing manual gearbox to AMT gearbox with solution like hydraulic or electric AMT kit that replaces the manual shift mechanism to automated actuators. Generally, in manual gearbox, the operational principal of reverse gear is sliding mesh. Due to sliding mesh gear arrangement, it can create interruption for gearshift while controlling shift actuators. In this paper, reverse gear shift arrangement and its operational dynamics at different operating condition has been studied and analyzed in detail. Based on status of vehicle, to ease the gearshift, engagement flow process proposed. The control methods that increases probability of smooth and easier shifting in all operating condition discussed in detail. The developed control algorithm discussed along with its implementation on real vehicle and results.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Commercial Vehicle Cooling Package for Improvement of Vehicle Fuel Economy

2015-04-14
2015-01-1349
In a heavy commercial vehicle, the engine cooling package is designed by considering peak heat load on the vehicle cooling system from an engine end. In cooling systems, the major unit that consumes most power from the engine is the engine cooling fan. It was seen from the vehicle measured duty cycle data, for most of the time engine operates at part load condition. Regardless of demand from the engine cooling system, engine fan was operating continuously at equivalent speed of the engine. This results in continuous consumption of productive engine power from the fan end ultimately affecting vehicle fuel economy. The present study shows that low idle speed viscous fan has the potential to meet stringent engine cooling performance requirements and consumes less engine power throughout an actual vehicle duty cycle. Experiments were conducted on test vehicle with different fan speeds.
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