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Technical Paper

A Low Cost Euro-III Development Strategy for 4 L Engine for Commercial Vehicle Application

2006-10-16
2006-01-3384
Reduction of NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) and particulates from engine exhaust is one of the prime considerations in current research and development in automotive industry. The present paper describes the combustion optimization done on a four cylinder, 4 liter DI diesel engine to meet stringent Euro-III emission norms. The engine FIE (Fuel Injection Equipment) and injector geometry was optimized for performance and emission. Smoke measurements were considered as indicative of soot, to predict particulate emissions. This was done to simplify the overall process and save development time. It was concluded that by combining the flexibility of electronically controlled fuel injection begin, with improved nozzle technologies, with higher spray velocities and spray penetration, a considerable reduction in NOx and particulate emissions can be achieved. This can serve as a low cost solution, without any exhaust after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Use of Sheet Molding Compound for Intake Manifold- combined with – Rocker Cover in DI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0002
The paper describes a first-of-its-kind attempt of authors to develop an intake manifold - combined with - rocker cover (IMCRC) in sheet molding compound (SMC) for 3 L and 4 L direct injection diesel engines with power ratings 75 kW and 92 kW respectively. The objective was to reduce overall engine weight, noise and cost. The intake manifold is designed to withstand absolute boost pressures of more than 2 bar, temperature in the range of 160 °C. and capable of carrying load of directly attached components such as an air intake pipe. It is worth to note that the designed SMC component always remains in the vicinity of the exhaust manifold by virtue of base engine layout constraint. The development if successful can expand the horizon of SMC in diesel engine application.
Technical Paper

Application of CFD Methodology to Reduce the Pressure Drop and Water Entry in the Air Intake System of Turbocharged Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1172
When an automobile negotiates a flooded region, water is splashed due to the rotational motion of the wheels. This water enters the air intake system of the turbocharged intercooled engine along with air and can pass through the turbocharger, intercooler and enter the engine. As water is an incompressible fluid, the piston cannot compress water inside the cylinder which leads to connecting rod bending and severe engine damage. This paper explains how the same has been resolved using CFD methodology and proposes the re-designed model of mud cover as a solution to this problem. The entire process has been streamlined and major time and cost reduction achieved by using simulation for optimization. The simulated results have been validated by extensive trials for correlation and outdoor tests for durability. Same analysis technique is used as a template to modify the air intake system.
Technical Paper

Design of Commercial Vehicle Cooling Packages

2008-04-14
2008-01-0264
Optimization of vehicle engine cooling package with requisite heat rejection capacity plays a key role in achieving most fuel economy and also in meeting the stringent noise norms. A set of design and operating features from existing vehicle engine cooling systems is reviewed and evaluated for their potential to provide optimized engine cooling. The features reviewed states significant potential in engine performance but these are balanced by satisfying required engine cooling requirement. Sets of trials are carried out on said vehicle with dissimilar features of cooling packages and the results are evaluated. Fuel economy trials in performance mode are carried out on vehicle with well thought-out cooling package for healthier comparison.
Technical Paper

Suspension Testing using Wheel Forces on a 3 DOF Road Load Simulator

2008-04-14
2008-01-0223
The use of Wheel Force Transducers (WFTs) to acquire data for laboratory simulation is becoming standard industry practice. However, in test rigs where we have only the suspension module and not the complete vehicle, does the reproduction of the orthogonal forces and moments at the wheel centre guarantee an accurate replication of the fatigue damage in the suspension components? The objective of this paper is to review the simulation methodology for a highly non-linear suspension in a 3 DOF (degree-of-freedom) suspension test rig in which the simulation was carried out using only the three orthogonal loads and vertical displacement. The damage at critical locations in the suspension is compared with that on the road and an assessment of the simulation using the WFT is made based on a comparison of the damage on the road vs. the rig.
Technical Paper

Approach for Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Exhaust System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2666
The automotive industry is heading in the direction of signing off the exhaust system durability based on computer simulation rather than rig simulation and physical vehicle testing. This is due to the cost, time and availability of prototype vehicles and test track. Use of Finite Element Method (FEM) enables to assure the structural integrity of the exhaust system and also contribute to better understanding of the system behavior in the various operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. This paper deals with dynamic analysis of a modular automotive exhaust system where it is directly mounted on power train pack. Selection of dynamic loads, processing of the test data, and effect of assembly loads along with material property variation due to temperature are explained. It also includes validation of the CAE model, prediction of probable failure locations and improving the design based on analysis outcome.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

2010-04-12
2010-01-0276
EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
Technical Paper

Simulation of Restart Gradability of a Manual Transmission Vehicle Using AVL-CRUISE

2013-10-14
2013-01-2516
1 With increasing fuel price, the power train size is on a downward trend. For Fuel Economy maximization, the engine capacity and reduction ratios are getting reduced. So gradability of a vehicle is becoming a trade off factor for the power train size finalization in a car. At the same time OEMs are working hard to maintain profitability by reducing development and operational cost and time. In this complexly competitive scenario in automobile manufacturing, simulation is gaining an upper hand over actual testing as simulation consumes lesser time and resource as compared to actual testing. This paper is aimed at developing a simulation technique for restart or stop and start gradability which is a very critical parameter for finalization of engine torque characteristics and power train configuration. The simulation is done on AVL-CRUISE software.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Analysis In the Induction Gas Dynamics of 2 Cylinder Naturally Aspirated CRDI Diesel Engine

2012-01-09
2012-28-0020
The power output of an internal combustion engine is directly proportional to the amount of air that can be forced into the cylinder per cycle and the amount of fuel that can be burned efficiently. The amount of air is most effectively increased by means of a mechanical supercharger. The purpose of this paper is attempting the non mechanical supercharging ways (Supercharging by means of gas dynamic effects) for naturally aspirated (NA) diesel engines and understanding in a better way the induction gas dynamics and its influence on engine performance characteristics. Wave dynamics in the intake system has strong influence on the performance of naturally aspirated internal combustion (IC) engines. This paper presents an application of Helmholtz resonator in the induction system of the naturally aspirated diesel engine to improve the engine breathing efficiency (volumetric efficiency).
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Engine Mounting System for Reduction in Lateral Shake and Drive Away Shudder on Vehicle

2017-06-05
2017-01-1822
In this study we will be discussing two issues related to vibrations which effect car owners. The first one, called lateral shake, can be described as a lateral vibration felt by customer in low speed of around 1200rpm, when vehicle shakes severely in Y-direction. The vibration is significantly felt at the thighs of passengers. A 16DOF rigid body model is established to simulate the power train & body system. The second vibration issue, called drive away shudder (also known as clutch judder/chatter/shudder) is a vibration felt by customers at the time of marching off. The vibration is significantly felt at the time of clutch engagement as a shiver in vehicle. While the common solution of shudder is to optimize clutch friction & engagement, in this study solution has been provided by optimizing the power train mounting system. Clutch shudder is observed on a medium sized car when driven in the range of 10-20 Km/h.
Technical Paper

Design, Simulation & Optimization of an Air Intake System to Reduce Induction Noise

2019-01-09
2019-26-0191
Air intake system (AIS) plays a major role in reducing the noise level in passenger car compartment, which has become an important requirement due to increasing customer expectation for better in cab noise. The ideal air intake system design should have minimum possible noise at snorkel entry point which ultimately contributes in cabin noise. There are different techniques that are implemented for an air intake system noise reduction e.g. choosing proper location of air entry suction point in engine bay compartment, suitable design for air filter box (volume), duct designs etc. Further design improvement are possible with an addition of tuned resonators in the system. An addition of resonator have major effect seen in reducing air induction noise and to meet target Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). But at the same time, selecting the correct type of resonator, its position & volume, frequency/s band at which resonator is tuned are important parameters.
Technical Paper

A Feedback and Feedforward Control Algorithm for a Manual Transmission Vehicle Simulation Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1356
Authors were challenged with a task of developing a full vehicle simulation model, with a target to simulate the electrical system performance and perform digital tests like Battery Charge Balance, in addition to the fuel efficiency estimation. A vehicle is a complicated problem or domain to model, due to the complexities of subsystems. Even more difficult task is to have a control algorithm which controls the vehicle model with the required control signals to follow the test specification. Particularly, simulating the control of a vehicle with a manual transmission is complicated due to many associated control signals (Throttle, Brake and Clutch) and interruptions like gear changes. In this paper, the development of a full vehicle model aimed at the assessment of electrical system performance of the vehicle is discussed in brief.
Technical Paper

An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

2018-04-03
2018-01-0609
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India. The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly.
Technical Paper

Hill Start Assistance Developed for Buses Equipped with AMT

2016-04-05
2016-01-1111
The AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of both MT (Manual Transmission) and AT (Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, with the AMT, clutch pedal is removed and therefore, driver can’t perceive the clutch position, making it difficult to hill-start with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Reduction of Brake Squeal and Groan Noise

2015-09-27
2015-01-2687
Brake noise is one of the common complaints and an irritant not just for the vehicle occupants but equally for the passers-by. Brake noise is actually vibration that is occurring at a frequency that is audible to the human ear. This occurrence of brake noise like brake squeal (>1 kHz) and groan (<1 kHz) is often very intense and can lead to vehicle complaints. During a brake noise event, vehicle basic structure and suspension system components are excited due to brake system vibration and result in a resonance that is perceived in the form of a noise. Proposed work discusses an experimental study that is carried out on a vehicle for addressing concern regarding disc brake squeal and groan noise. Based on the preliminary inputs, vehicle level study was carried out in order to simulate the problem and objectively capture its severity.
Technical Paper

Augmenting Light Weighting Horizon in Automotive

2014-04-28
2014-28-0023
Better ride and comfort, enhanced safety, reliability and durability, lower running cost as well as cost of ownership continue to be challenges for automotive OEMs. Higher fuel efficiency is considered as USP not only for lower running cost but also is hygiene factor from sustainability point of view. This has necessitated the need for Augmenting Light weighting horizon in automotive OEMs. Augmenting this leads to invention of innovative materials and processes for emerging cost competitive market. This paper focuses on technology efforts towards augmenting light weighting Horizon in Automotive. Light weighting concepts being explored by OEMs with the help of automotive component manufacturers from Powertrain - Engines & Transmission, Chassis and Suspension are discussed.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Irregularities in Idle and Fuel Delivery Variation of a Rotary Fuel Injection Pump

2004-09-27
2004-32-0056
This paper deals with the problem of cyclic irregularities during idling in relation with port to port fuel delivery variation of rotary Fuel Injection Pump (FIP) for a diesel engine. The relation is demonstrated on a two cylinder engine, where problem of high cyclic irregularities was observed for which the root cause was identified as the fuel delivery variation from the FIP, which was later taken up for the improvements in the design. This paper discusses the technical approach used in identifying the root cause for the high cyclic irregularities and the solution of the problem. It is demonstrated how angular acceleration of the crankshaft free end can be used to diagnose the non-uniformity of combustion in different cylinders which leads to higher cyclic irregularities. The solution discusses the improvements done in the hydraulic passages of the head and rotor of the FIP for line to line fuel delivery variation control.
Journal Article

Body Induced Boom Noise Control by Hybrid Integrated Approach for a Passenger Car

2013-05-13
2013-01-1920
Vehicle incab booming perception, a low frequency response of the structure to the various excitations presents a challenging task for the NVH engineers. The excitation to the structure causing boom can either be power train induced, depending upon the number of cylinders or the road inputs, while transfer paths for the excitation is mainly through the power train mounts or the suspension attachments to the body. The body responds to those input excitations by virtue of the dynamic behavior mainly governed by its modal characteristics. This paper explains in detail an integrated approach, of both experimental and numerical techniques devised to investigate the mechanism for boom noise generation. It is therefore important, to understand the modal behavior of the structure. The modal characteristics from the structural modal test enable to locate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the body, which are likely to get excited due to the operating excitations.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Prediction in Safety Simulations Using MAT-240 Material Model in LS-DYNA

2015-01-14
2015-26-0165
Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge number of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of HCNG Fuel on Sequential Gas Injection Based Heavy Duty Engine

2015-03-10
2015-01-0005
Depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the unsteadiness of their prices and the increasingly stricter exhaust emission legislation put forward attention of world towards use of alternate fuels. The ever increasing demand for ecologically friendly vehicles can be met by use of clean fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). Lower carbon to hydrogen ratio of CNG makes it a cleaner fuel, due to this CNG is gaining popularity as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel in transport sector. Hydrogen fuel for IC engines is also being considered as a future fuel due to its simple carbon less structure. However, several obstacles have to be overcome before widespread utilization of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can occur in the transport sector. The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and could be considered a first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy.
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