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High Temperature Power Device and Packaging - The Technology Leap to Achieve Cost, Power Density and Reliability Target

2011-11-07
The three major challenges in the power electronics in hybrid and electric vehicles are: System cost, power density and reliability. High temperature power device and packaging technologies increases the power density and reliability while reducing system cost. Advanced Silicon devices with synthesized high-temperature packaging technologies can achieve junction temperature as high as 200C (compared to the present limitation of 150C) eliminating the need for a low-temperature radiator and therefore these devices reduces the system cost. The silicon area needed for a power inverter with high junction temperature capability can be reduced by more than 50 - 75% thereby significantly reducing the packaging space and power device and package cost. Smaller packaging space is highly desired since multiple vehicle platforms can share the same design and therefore reducing the cost further due to economies of scale.
Technical Paper

Timing Analysis and Tracing Concepts for ECU Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0190
Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources.
Technical Paper

Efficient Multi-Core Software Design Space Exploration for Hybrid Control Unit Integration

2014-04-01
2014-01-0260
Multi-core systems are adopted quickly in the automotive domain, Proof of concepts have been implemented for power train, body and chassis, involving hard real-time constraints. However, depending on the degree of integration, it can be costly, especially in those cases where existing single-core software has to be migrated over. Furthermore, there seems to be a high level of uncertainty, whether a found solution, with regards to partitioning, mapping and orchestration of software is close to an optimum solution. Some integrated solutions demonstrate considerably less performance, for instance due to communication overhead compared to execution on single-core systems. This paper discusses a methodology, as to how to effectively and efficiently investigate the software architecture design space for multi-core software development.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

Extensive Investigation of a Common Rail Diesel Injector Regarding Injection Characteristics and the Resulting Influences on the Dual Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

2016-04-05
2016-01-0780
Natural gas and especially biogas combustion can be seen as one of the key technologies towards climate-neutral energy supply. With its extensive availability, biogas is amongst the most important renewable energy sources in the present energy mix. Today, the use of gaseous fuels is widely established, for example in cogeneration units for combined heat and power generation. In contrast to conventional spark plug ignition, the combustion can also be initialized by a pilot injection. In order to further increase engine efficiency, this article describes the process for a targeted optimization of the pilot fuel injection. One of the crucial points for a more efficient dual fuel combustion process, is to optimize the amount of pilot injection in order to increase overall engine efficiency, and therefore decrease fuel consumption. In this connection, the injection system plays a key role.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Embedded System Tool to Support Debugging, Calibration, Fast Prototyping and Emulation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0304
Infineon's latest high-end automotive microcontrollers like TC1796 are complex Systems On Chip (SoC) with two processor cores and up to two internal multi-master buses. The complex interaction between cores, peripherals and environment provides a big challenge for debugging. For mission critical control like engine management the debugging approach must not be intrusive. The provided solution are dedicated Emulation Devices which are able to deal with several 10 Gbit/s of raw internal trace data with nearly no cost adder for mass production and system design. Calibration, which is used later in the development cycle, has different requirements, but is covered by the Emulation Devices as well. The architecture of TC1796ED comprises the unchanged TC1796 silicon layout, extended by a full In-Circuit Emulator (ICE) and calibration overlay memory on the same die. In most cases, the only debug/calibration tool hardware needed is a USB cable.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT's for Advanced Distributed Ignition Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0518
Driven by factors like consumption, power output per liter, comfort and more stringent exhaust gas standards the powertain control area, has developed rapidly in the last decades. This trend has also brought with it many innovations in the ignition application. Today we can see a trend to Pencil-coil or Plug-top-coil ignition systems. The next step in system partitioning is to remove the power driver from the ECU and place it directly in/on the coil body. The advantages of the new partitioning - e.g. no high voltage wires, reduced power dissipation on the ECU - are paid with different, mainly tougher requirements for the electronic components. By using specialized technologies for the different functions - IGBT for switching the power, SPT for protection, supply and diagnostics - in chip-on-chip technology all required functions for a decentralized ignition system can be realized in a TO220/ TO263 package.
Technical Paper

Seamless Solution for Electronic Power Steering

2006-04-03
2006-01-0593
The number of safety critical automotive applications employing high current brushless motors continues to increase (Steering, Braking, and Transmission etc.). There are many benefits when moving from traditional solutions to electrically actuated solutions. Some of these benefits can include increased fuel economy, simplified vehicle installation and packaging, increased feature set, improved safety and/or convenience, simplified unit assembly and modular testability prior as well as during vehicle manufacturing. The trend to implement brushless motors in these applications (which require electronically controlled commutation) has also brought with it the need for powerful inverters, which primarily consist of Power MOSFETs and MOSFET Driver ICs. This paper reviews the challenges associated with the design of safety critical electronic systems which combine sensing, control and actuation.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Power Electronics in HEV Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0277
Today the majority of power electronics is developed based on the requirements set by the main fields of application e.g. power generation, power supply, industrial drive and traction. With introduction to automotive applications new requirements have to be taken into account. This paper discusses how interconnection technologies for power semiconductors can be improved to meet the demand for higher temperature capability in HEV applications.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations for Analysis of Temperature Rise on the Traction Contact Surface of Toroidal Cvts

2009-06-10
2009-01-1661
Temperature rise in traction contact areas is one important factor that influences traction coefficient. For examining the influence of temperature rise on the traction coefficient, it is necessary to first clarify temperature rise in the traction contact area. In this article, temperature rise in the traction contact areas is discussed in three major parts. First, measured temperature distributions on the traction contact surface under conditions of high rolling speed and minute amounts of sliding and spinning, such as those which are found in a toroidal CVT, using a twin-disc test machine and thin-film platinum sensors are shown. Second, the above experimental results are compared with results from a traction analysis program (REIB99). Characteristics of calculated results were qualitatively in good agreement with measured results.
Technical Paper

Advanced Gasoline Engine Management Platform for Euro IV & CHN IV Emission Regulation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1704
The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Integration for Decentralized Automotive ECU

2004-03-08
2004-01-0717
As the demand for enhanced comfort, safety and differentiation with new features continues to grow and as electronics and software enable most of these, the number of electronic units or components within automobiles will continue to increase. This will increase the overall system complexity, specifically with respect to the number of controller actuators such as e-motors. However, hard constraints on cost and on physical boundaries such as maximum power dissipation per unit and pin-count per unit/connector require new solutions to alternative system partitioning. Vehicle manufacturers, as well as system and semiconductor suppliers are striving for increased scalability and modularity to allow for most cost optimal high volume configurations while featuring platform reuse and feature differentiation. This paper presents new semiconductor based approaches with respect to technologies, technology mapping and assembly technologies.
Technical Paper

Innovative Chip Set for Pressure and Acceleration Based Airbag Solutions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0846
More and more passenger cars are equipped with passive side protection systems such as thorax airbags for front and rear passengers. In the past, side airbag protection systems used sensors based on acceleration measurements [1]. In the meantime different sensor principles have been tested in order to increase the performance of this application. The intention has been to achieve faster firing decisions and to decrease the misuse risk for a floor or chassis impact. This paper presents the partitioning of an advanced chipset for pressure and acceleration based airbag systems. It shows the communication link between the sensors, the receiver-IC and other blocks in the application.
Technical Paper

Fast Exhaust Gas Probe for Multicomponent Analysis: Scientific/Technical Principle

1993-03-01
930083
A new analytical method for the automobile industry has been developed using a pulsed tunable laser system and a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The goal was to achieve the following conditions: High time resolution (〈100ms), high sensitivity (down to 1 ppm), high accuracy (10%) and applicability to most exhaust emission components. The main problem is the large number of components with very different and fast varying concentrations. For a preliminary list of 25 exhaust emission components, all necessary parameters have been determined. First results obtained from a real exhaust gas sample will be presented.
Technical Paper

LED Modules for Matrix and Pixel Light Solutions - On the Way to New Features in Headlight Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0432
Glare-free high beams are a consistent enhancement of adaptive headlight systems for vehicles with advanced driver assist systems. A prerequisite for these are camera-based systems with the ability to recognize and classify objects such as vehicles in front or oncoming vehicles when driving at night. These objects can then be dynamically masked out of the high beam of the specially designed headlights. Since we are talking about moving objects, it is essential for the high beam to be continuously and dynamically adapted. This paper describes a modular LED matrix system for dynamically adjusting a glare-free and continuously active high beam. The main focus was on the modularity of the system and the optimization of the thermal properties of an LED matrix in order to ensure that operation was reliable under the harsh environmental conditions inside a headlight. Specific control electronics and different interconnection methods were examined.
Technical Paper

Motor Control in Auxiliary Drive Systems How to Choose the Best Fitting Electronic Solution

2014-04-01
2014-01-0323
In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface.
Technical Paper

High-End Automotive Servo Drives

2000-03-06
2000-01-0135
The importance of electrical motors in the automotive industry is growing. Besides standard brushed DC motors, mainly found in body and convenience areas, multiphase unipolar BLDC motors, generally used in open loop pump drives and HVAC applications, are becoming more and more widespread. These technologies have been around for some years now and are quite well covered. As well as AC induction motors, some emerging applications (mainly in the areas of powertrain and chassis control) implement permanent magnet synchronous motors with closed loop and vector-controlled technology. These applications call for a new drive concept. This paper analyzes the various requirements and proposes a suitable concept.
Technical Paper

Automotive Design Quantification: Parameters Defining Exterior Proportions According to Car Segment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0357
Among the issues affecting the design process of a vehicle, there is the lack of multidisciplinary knowledge among the different teams involved. This often leads to the risk of loosing important key points from the initial concept idea of designers to the final vehicle package definition made by engineers. Therefore, this study builds up a method based on parameters defining exterior aesthetic priorities according to car segment to support engineers involved in the automotive design process. In particular, during the early design-engineering phase, this method should help them to understand better vehicle proportions defined by designers. This work is currently used in the course of design and simulation of road vehicles (Chair of Automotive Technology, TUM) to explain fundamentals of automotive design.
Technical Paper

X-by-Wire: Opportunities, Challenges and Trends

2003-03-03
2003-01-0113
This paper will outline the results of a study performed to analyze the market introduction of x-by-wire applications in the context of weak global industry environment, technological and legislative challenges, standardization issues and end customer benefits. This paper attempts to provide a bird-view on influence factors and impacts for the x-by-wire market, including e.g. the end customer's acceptance and legal environment driving further development in specific areas. Further, major driving forces on semiconductor/component level will be outlined regarding e.g. pin-count, computation performance and heat dissipation, but also possible scenarios and solutions towards safe and efficient system design and partitioning.
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