Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

An Investigation and Validation of Tailpipe Noise Contribution to Vehicle Cabin via Transfer Path Analysis Concept

2009-05-19
2009-01-2044
To facilitate the design and validation of exhaust system, quantification of tailpipe noise contribution to vehicle cabin is usually necessary. In this paper, transfer path analysis (TPA) concept has been applied to investigate the contributions from tailpipe and other noise sources as well as the interaction between tailpipe noise and its transmission path to vehicle cabin. An artificial acoustic source has been designed for transfer function measurement and an all-wheel-drive dynamometer located in anechoic chamber is used as a testing platform to collect operational data. A validation methodology has also been proposed and implemented by comparing the measured and predicted interior noise response with a big auxiliary muffler (BAM).
Technical Paper

A High Performance Passive Muffler Valve

2009-05-19
2009-01-2039
A new passive muffler valve has been developed that offers the advantages of both the current passive and active valves without their major drawbacks. Like current passive valves this new valve provides high restriction at low to medium engine speeds for improved noise control. But with a near over-center spring action and unique flap shape, this high performance valve has minimal pressure drop at high engine speeds, closer to the active valve pressure drop performance. The in-line design of the valve makes it ideal for low restriction OE mufflers, resonators, and aftermarket performance mufflers. The new valve design is uncomplicated, with few components and has been tested extensively for durability utilizing both bench and vehicle level testing.
Technical Paper

Modal Transient FEA Study to Simulate Exhaust System Road Load Test

2011-04-12
2011-01-0027
Durability life is one of the major concerns in the automotive industry. Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) is one of the most important steps to verify exhaust system durability performance. RLDA will not only provide data for system level rig testing drive file development but also for exhaust components validation (computing safety factors). Modal transient FEA can be utilized to simulate either vehicle durability testing or sub-system level rig testing. How to simulate correctly is critical in the simulation. One of the most challenging portions in the full exhaust system simulation is isolator modeling due to its non-linear characteristics. However, we have to use linear modeling to simulate isolator in modal transient analysis, which induces errors.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Dynamic Response Correlation of Exhaust System between Measurements and FE-Simulations

2010-05-05
2010-01-1569
Study and design of the lifetime durability of mechanical components in an automotive exhaust system becomes a challenging task today for engineers. During the investigation, both experimental tests and finite element simulations are used for the investigation under dynamic engine excitations. For the dynamic finite element analysis, the experimental system must be simplified as a linear mathematic model and real boundary conditions are idealized. Due to this simplification, the dynamic behavior of the finite element model may strongly deviate from that in operational conditions. To gain insight into the dynamic behavior of exhaust systems from simulations, the finite model must be modified based on experimental results. As known the harmonic response is related to modal shapes and engine loads. Therefore, modifications of the finite element model can be done from these two aspects.
Technical Paper

The Role of CFD Combustion Simulation in Diesel Burner Development

2009-10-06
2009-01-2878
Diesel burners introduce combustion of diesel fuel to raise exhaust gas temperature to Diesel Oxidization Catalyst (DOC) light-off or Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration conditions, thereby eliminating the need of engine measures such as post-injections. Such diesel combustion requirement nevertheless poses challenges to burner development especially in combustion control and risk mitigation of DPF material failure. In particular, burner design must satisfy good soot distribution and heat distribution at DPF front face after meeting minimum requirements of ignition, heat release, and backpressure. In burner development, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models have been developed based on commercial codes for burner thermal and flow management with capability of predicting comprehensive physical and chemical phenomena including turbulence induced mixing, fuel injection, fuel droplet transport, diesel combustion, radiation, conjugate heat transfer and etc.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect in Exhaust System Fatigue Life Prediction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0783
Automotive exhaust system experiences vibratory and thermal loads. Bogey test had been the major validation method until recent years when the strain-life approach was adopted to evaluate component's fatigue life. In practice, when using the strain-life model to evaluate a component subjected to elevated temperature, temperature effect on component fatigue life is considered by introducing a temperature scale factor KC that is used to scale up the measured nominal strain, hence the mechanical load. This paper intends to propose a method to estimate KC by designing component bench tests at room temperature and at elevated temperature, respectively. Two major failure modes in the exhaust system are investigated and different temperature effects on the base metal fatigue and on the weld or heat-affected zone are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1709
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Developing Design Guidelines for an SCR Assembly Equipped for RF Sensing of NH3 Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-1266
The Cu-zeolite (CuZ) SCR catalyst enables higher NOx conversion efficiency in part because it can store a significant amount of NH3. “NH3 storage control”, where diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is dosed in accord with a target NH3 loading, is widely used with CuZ catalysts to achieve very high efficiency. The NH3 loading actually achieved on the catalyst is currently estimated through a stoichiometric calculation. With future high-capacity CuZ catalyst designs, it is likely that the accuracy of this NH3 loading estimate will become limiting for NOx conversion efficiency. Therefore, a direct measurement of NH3 loading is needed; RF sensing enables this. Relative to RF sensing of soot in a DPF (which is in commercial production), RF sensing of NH3 adsorbed on CuZ is more challenging. Therefore, more attention must be paid to the “microwave resonance cavity” created within the SCR assembly. The objective of this study was to develop design guidelines to enable and enhance RF sensing.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalysts for Future Emissions Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1520
A series of novel metal-oxide (TiO2, TiO2-SiO2)-supported Mn, Fe, Co, V, Cu and Ce catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness technique and investigated for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia at industrial relevantly conditions. Among all the prepared catalysts, Cu/TiO2 showed superior de-NOx performance in the temperature range of 150-200 °C followed by Mn/TiO2 in the temperature range of 200-250 °C. The Ce/TiO2 catalyst exhibited a broad temperature window with notable de-NOx performance in the temperature regime of 250-350 °C. The phyico-chemical characterization results revealed that the activity enhancement was correlated with the properties of the support material. All the anatasetitania-supported catalysts (M/TiO2 (Hombikat)) demonstrated significantly high de-NOx performance above 150 °C.
Technical Paper

Comparative Corrosion Evaluation of Ferritic Stainless Steels Utilized in Automotive Exhaust Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-1407
The purpose of this work was to initiate a comparative evaluation of the aqueous corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steels currently used to fabricate automotive exhaust systems. Both acid condensate and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) testing using both as-received and heat treated test coupons prepared from Types 409, 409Al, 436 and 439 stainless steel was conducted for this purpose. A truncated version of an in-house acid condensate testing protocol revealed that Type 409Al stainless steel was the most resistant to corrosion of the four ferritic stainless steels examined, whereas Type 409 stainless steel was the least resistance to corrosion.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach in Virtual CAE Fatigue Life Prediction for Components of Exhaust System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1397
Component bench testing is a basic method to validate the component fatigue life. However, the component bench testing takes long time and is costly. With the development of more powerful computer and CAE simulation techniques, virtual CAE simulation method becomes more important in the component design, optimization, and validation due to its efficiency and low cost. Fatigue life of components of exhaust system is a critical characteristic and it is not deterministic but statistical phenomenon. Thus, a probabilistic approach is necessary. Variations and reliability of fatigue life can be considered in physical testing by testing more samples. However, how to account variations from manufacturing and testing in virtual CAE simulation is a big challenge. In this paper, a virtual CAE fatigue life prediction of components of exhaust system by probabilistic approach is studied and proposed.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery from Gasoline Engine Exhaust for Water Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0369
Water injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of exhaust water recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Water injection testing was conducted at a full load condition (5000 rpm/18.1 bar BMEP) and a high load condition (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine. Water recovery testing was conducted both after the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and after the charge air cooler (CAC) at a high load (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP), as well as a part load (2080 rpm/6.8 bar BMEP) condition, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. Three types of water separation designs were tested: a passive cyclone separator (CS), a passive membrane separator (MEM), and an active separator (AS).
Technical Paper

Micro-Channel Heat Exchanger: An Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Device

2018-04-03
2018-01-0052
Almost one-third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Currently, there are multiple WHR technologies that are being investigated by various entities in the auto industry. One relatively simple device to extract heat energy from the exhaust is a heat exchanger. Heat exchangers are used in some automotive applications to transfer heat from the hot exhaust gas to the colder coolant fluid to raise the coolant temperature. The warmer coolant fluid can be used for several purposes such as; faster heating of the engine’s lubrication oil and transmission fluids during cold starts, and faster cabin heating, which in turn, can potentially improve the overall engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions.
Journal Article

Waste Heat Recovery for Light-Duty Truck Application Using ThermoAcoustic Converter Technology

2017-03-28
2017-01-0153
Nearly a third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, there are multiple waste heat recovery technologies that are being investigated in the auto industry. One innovative waste heat recovery approach uses Thermoacoustic Converter (TAC) technology. Thermoacoustics is the field of physics related to the interaction of acoustic waves (sonic power) with heat flows. As in a heat engine, the TAC produces electric power where a temperature differential exists, which can be generated with engine exhaust (hot side) and coolant (cold side). Essentially, the TAC converts exhaust waste heat into electricity in two steps: 1) the exhaust waste heat is converted to acoustic energy (mechanical) and 2) the acoustic energy is converted to electrical energy.
Technical Paper

Clean EGR for Gasoline Engines – Innovative Approach to Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction Simultaneously

2017-03-28
2017-01-0683
External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature SCR Catalysts Optimized for Cold-Start and Low-Load Engine Exhaust Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1026
The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start, low-idle and low-load conditions. A series of metal oxide- incorporated beta zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques. The resulting catalysts were characterized and tested for reduction of NOx in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz micro-reactor using ammonia as the reductant gas. Initial catalyst formulations have been exhibited good NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 - 350°C. Besides, more experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Isothermal, Anisothermal, and High-Temperature Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Life Assessment and CAE Implementations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0370
Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle exhaust components and systems. The probabilistic life assessment approaches, including analytical, experimental, and simulation, CAE implementation in particular, are attracting significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, the state-of-the-art probabilistic life assessment methods for vehicle exhausts under combined thermal and mechanical loadings are reviewed and investigated. The loading cases as experienced by the vehicle exhausts are first categorized into isothermal fatigue, anisothermal fatigue, and high-temperature thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) based on the failure mechanisms. Subsequently, the probabilistic life assessment procedures for each category are delineated, with emphasis on product validation.
Technical Paper

Integration of Diesel Burner for Large Engine Aftertreatment using CFD

2010-10-05
2010-01-1946
Diesel burners recently have been used in Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration process, in which the exhaust gas temperature is raised through the combustion process to burn off the soot particles. The feasibility of such process using the burner in large diesel applications is investigated along with a mixer and DPF. For such applications, only partial flow of the exhaust stream is fed into the burner and the resulting hot flow from combustion process is then mixed with the rest of the main stream. The amount of flow into the burner plays a vital role in overall system performance as it determines the amount of hot gas needed for Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) light-off (to facilitate DPF regeneration) and also oxygen amount needed for secondary combustion. A passive valve plate design is proposed for such flow split applications for the burner.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Deposits in Urea SCR Systems for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks

2010-10-05
2010-01-1941
With increasing applications of urea SCR for NOx emission reduction, improving the system performance and durability has become a high priority. A typical urea SCR system includes a urea injector, injector housing, mixer, and appropriate pipe configurations to allow continuous urea injection into the exhaust stream and evaporation of urea solution into gaseous products. Continuous operation at various conditions with high NOx reduction is possible, but one problem that threatens the life and performance of these systems is urea deposit. When urea or its byproducts become deposited on the inner surfaces of the system including walls, mixers, injector housings and substrates it can create concerns of backpressure and material deteriorations. In addition, deposits as a waste of reagents can negatively affect engine operation, emissions performance and DEF economy. Urea deposit behavior is explored in terms of heat transfer, pipe geometry, injector layout and mixing mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Urea SCR System for On-Highway Truck Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1938
In order to satisfy tightening global emissions regulations, diesel truck manufacturers are striving to meet increasingly stringent Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction standards. The majority of heavy duty diesel trucks have integrated urea SCR NOx abatement strategies. To this end, aftertreatment systems need to be properly engineered to achieve high conversion efficiencies. A EuroV intent urea SCR system is evaluated and failed to meet NOx conversion targets with severe urea deposit formation. Systematic enhancements of the design have been performed to enable it to meet targets, including emission reduction efficiency via improved reagent mixing, evaporation, distribution, back pressure, and removing of urea deposits. Multiple urea mixers, injector mounting positions and various system layouts are developed and evaluated, including both CFD analysis and full scale laboratory tests.
X