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Technical Paper

Design Features of the JUNKERS 211B AIRCRAFT ENGINE

THE Junkers 211B engine follows the usual German practice of very large displacements and conservative mean effective pressures and rotative speeds. However, the relative light weight per unit of displacement results in a net weight per horsepower that is not far above its competitors. Fully automatic devices which control propeller speed, manifold pressure, mixture ratio, spark advance, and supercharger gear ratio follow the German policy of removing all possible distractions from the pilot. This is one of three large liquid-cooled engines known to be produced in quantity in Germany; it powers an impressive percentage of the Luftwaffe. While of external appearance and displacement that resemble the Daimler-Benz DB-601 engine, the fundamental construction, detail design practice, and metallurgy of the Junkers 211B are surprisingly different.
Technical Paper

The New PLYMOUTH Engine

PLYMOUTH'S new V-8 engine has a specific output of 0.65 bhp/cu in. and 145-psi bmep — obtained through a combination of high thermal, volumetric, and mechanical efficiencies. Good design, the author points out, has achieved this high output despite the dual-venturi carburetor and the 7.6/1 compression ratio, selected for satisfactory operation on regular-grade fuels. The engine has a bore and stroke of 3.563 × 3¼, weighs 568 lb without flywheel, is 29⅜ in. long, and is designed for optimum response to future compression ratio increases. (A report of oral discussion following presentation of this paper appears on p. 220, following “The New Packard V-8 Engine,” by W. E. Schwieder.)
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

Development Highlights and Unique Features of New Chrysler V-8 Engine

THE design and development of the new valve-in-head V-8 Chrysler engine of 7.5 compression ratio are described here. Among the features discussed by the authors are: the hemispherical combustion chamber, V-8 cylinder arrangement, double-breaker distributor, “thermal flywheel” on automatic choke, and exhaust-heated and water-jacketed throttle bodies. The hemispherical combustion chamber was adopted after it had displayed excellent volumetric and indicated thermal efficiencies, and an ability to maintain these high efficiencies in service. The high volumetric efficiency, for example, is considered to be due to such design features as valves not crowded together, nor surrounded closely by the combustion-chamber walls. They are thereby fully effective in the flow of the fuel-air mixture and the exhaust gases. The authors also present performance data for this engine, which, at full throttle, develops 180 hp at 4000 rpm and 312 ft-lb of torque at 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Torque Flite Transmission

THIS paper describes the Chrysler TorqueFlite transmission, a 3-speed unit with torque converter. The discussion includes details of the push-button controls of the automatic transmission, operation of the transmission and hydraulic controls, power transmission through the gearbox, and design of several of the components. The authors think that the TorqueFlite offers to a greater degree the advantages of automatic transmission: ease of operation and maximum power over a wide range of car speeds.
Technical Paper


THIS paper discusses the progress of research on the automotive gas turbine and predicts its future potentialities. Comparison of gas turbines and presently used engines shows the possibilities of the gas-turbine applications. Design, construction, and testing of gas turbines are discussed, especially in the light of economy and performance.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper


THIS paper explains a few of the basic principles of the character of sound and the mechanism of human hearing. The author describes some simple experiments which demonstrate the relationship between intensity and loudness and the nature of harmony. He also points out the difficulties of accurately analyzing sound electronically, and the resulting importance of combining the finest electronic equipment with sharp, attentive human faculties. Five basic ways to reduce noise and the mechanics of each are described. The effect of these methods on the work of the sound engineer is indicated.
Technical Paper

Application of Design and Development Techniques for Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

Gasoline direct injection technology is receiving increased attention among automotive engineers due to its high potential to reach future emission and fuel economy goals. This paper reports some of the design and development techniques in use at Chrysler as applied to four-stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines. The spray characteristics of Chrysler's single-fluid high-pressure injector are reported. Tools used in the design process are identified. Observations of the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process using laser diagnostic techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are described. Finally, combustion and emissions characteristics using Design of Experiment (DoE) tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Effect of Valve-Cam Ramps on Valve Train Dynamics

Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

The Use of Re-Refined Oil in Vehicle Fleets

A literature search to identify deleterious effects of using re-refined oil did not disclose any validated occurrences. Significant engine testing using re-refined lubricating oil is reported and no cases were discovered in which engine operation was affected negatively by the use of re-refined oil. The American Petroleum Institute (API) allows the use of re-refined base stock oils in the blending of end use lubricants. Based on oil sample testing performed in this research as well as other authoritative sources, it was determined that no significant chemical or physical differences exist between re-refined and virgin oils. Differences noted in this research were related to higher levels of poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's) in the re-refined oil. PNA's are formed due to the extreme conditions of temperature and pressure during operation of an internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Modeling of Power Train Components

This paper discusses simplified lumped parameter thermal modeling of power train components. In particular, it discusses the tradeoff between model complexity and the ability to correlate the predicted temperatures and flow rates with measured data. The benefits and problems associated with using a three lumped mass model are explained and the value of this simpler model is promoted. The process for correlation and optimization using modern software tools is explained. Examples of models for engines and transmissions are illustrated along with their predictive abilities over typical driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Mixture Temperature Variations in the Intake Port

Temperature variation and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially during the warm up period. Cold temperatures in the intake port result in a large amount of liquid-fuel film. Since the liquid-fuel film responds at a slower speed than the gas-phase flow during transient operations, the liquid-fuel film acts as a fuel sink (or source) and can degrade the vehicle's driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. In this work, a one-dimensional, unsteady, multicomponent, multiphase flow model has been developed to study the mixture formation process in the intake port for a modern, multipoint-fuel-injection, gasoline engine. The droplet, liquid film and gas-phase mixture temperature variations and the effects of charge air, initial fuel and port wall temperatures involved in generating the air-fuel mixture are examined.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.