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Journal Article

Columbus Thermal Hydraulic Operations with US Payloads

2009-07-12
2009-01-2555
After launch and activation activities, the Columbus module started its operational life on February 2008 providing resources to the internal and external experiments. In March 2008 two US Payloads were successfully installed into Columbus Module: Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and a US payload of the Express rack family, Express Rack 3, carrying the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) experiment. They were delivered to the European laboratory from the US laboratory and followed few months later by similar racks; Human Research Facility 1 (HRF1) and HRF2. The following paper provides an overview of US Payloads, giving their main features and experiments run inside Columbus on year 2008. Flight issues, mainly on the hydraulic side are also discussed. Engineering evaluations released to the flight control team, telemetry data, and relevant mathematical models predictions are described providing a background material for the adopted work-around solutions.
Journal Article

Role of Power Distribution System Tests in Final Assembly of a Military Derivative Airplane

2009-11-10
2009-01-3121
Boeing has contracts for military application of twin engine airplanes generically identified in this paper as the MX airplane. Unlike previous derivatives, the MX airplanes are produced with a streamlined manufacturing process to improve cost and schedule performance. The final assembly of each MX airplane includes a series of integration tests, called factory functional tests (FFTs), which are modified from those of typical commercial versions and verify correctness of equipment installation and basic functionalities. Two airplanes have been through the production line resulting in a number of FFT lessons learned. Addressed are the power distribution lessons learned: 1) the expanded coverage of the basic automated power-on generation system test, 2) the need for a manual wire continuity test, 3) salient features of the power distribution tests, and 4) keys to make first pass power distribution test smooth and successful.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Tau Parallel Kinematic Machine for Aerospace Application

2009-11-10
2009-01-3222
A consortium of interested parties has conducted an experimental characterization of two Tau parallel kinematic machines which were built as a part of the EU-funded project, SMErobot1. Characteristics such as machine stiffness, work envelope, repeatability and accuracy were considered. This paper will present a brief history of the Tau parallel machine, the results of this testing and some comment on prospective application to the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AUGMENTOR WING CONCEPT

1970-02-01
700812
A review is made of previously reported status of the augmentor wing concept, including test work of de Havilland Aircraft of Canada and the NASA Ames Research Center. More recent NASA data which formed the basis for proceeding with a flight research vehicle program on the Buffalo CV-7A are discussed. This background is used to show potential application to a turbofan-powered production airplane concept whose highly integrated propulsion and aerodynamics show promise for a very quiet STOL. Proposed future augmentor wing development programs are also briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Liquid Water Content and Droplet Size Distribution Mass Fractions for Wind Milling Engine Fan Blade Ice Accretion Analysis

2007-09-24
2007-01-3291
A procedure for calculating the engine inlet diffuser section liquid water content and mass fractions of liquid water content associated with the water droplet size distribution for wind milling engine ice accretion analysis is presented. Critical fuel reserve calculation for extended twin-engine operation requires the determination of drag increase due to ice accretion on inoperative wind milling engine fan blade and guide vane.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2004 - 2005

2005-07-11
2005-01-2777
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2004 and February 2005. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Columbus to Human Research Facility Hydraulic Compatibility Test: Analysis and Results

2005-07-11
2005-01-3119
ESA and NASA agencies agreed to run an interface compatibility test at the EADS facility between the Columbus flight module and a duplicate ground unit of a currently on-orbit US International Standard Payload Rack, the Human Research Facility (HRF) Flight Prototype Rack (FPR). The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the capability to run US payloads inside the European ISS module Columbus. One of the critical aspects to be verified to ensure suitable operations of the two systems was the combined performance of the hydraulic controls resident in the HRF and Columbus coolant loops. A hydraulic model of the HRF FPR was developed and combined with the Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) model. Several coupled thermal-hydraulic test cases were then performed, preceded by mathematical analysis, required to predict safe test conditions and to optimize the Columbus valve configurations.
Technical Paper

Node 1 With Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

2005-07-11
2005-01-2798
This CFD study is aimed at evaluation of the ventilation characteristics within the ISS Node 1 with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) protrusions into ECLS keep-out zones. An assessment of Node 1 airflow characteristics in the presence of the ARED and a human body simulation model has been performed for the current on-orbit configuration of the Node 1 ventilation system. Both the quantitative velocity distribution analysis and qualitative three-dimensional airflow evaluation have shown that the installation of the ARED in the Node 1 radial bay produces a minimal impact on the cabin ventilation characteristics and the crew.
Technical Paper

Universal Splice Machine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3782
There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for automated machinery that is portable, flexible and light. This paper will focus on a joint project between BROETJE-Automation and Boeing called the Universal Splice Machine (USM). The USM is a portable, flexible and lightweight automated drilling and fastening machine for longitudinal splices. The USM is the first machine of its kind that has the ability not only to drill holes without the need to deburr, (burrless drilling) but also to insert fasteners. The Multi Function End Effector (MFEE) runs on a rail system that is mounted directly on the fuselage using a vacuum cup system. Clamp up is achieved through the use of an advanced electromagnet. A control cart follows along next to the fuselage and includes an Automated Fastener Feeding System. This paper will show how this new advancement has the capabilities to fill gaps in aircraft production that automation has never reached before.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

2007-09-17
2007-01-3813
Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Risk Assessment from Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions

2007-07-09
2007-01-3116
Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure is an important challenge for mission design and operations for future exploration-class and long-duration missions. Crew members are exposed to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). If sufficient protection is not provided the radiation risk to crew members from SPEs could be significant. To improve exposure risk estimates and radiation protection from SPEs, detailed evaluations of radiation shielding properties are required. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE™, which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed for this purpose. For the calculation of radiation exposure at a specific site, the cosine distribution was implemented to replicate the omnidirectional characteristic of the 4π particle flux on a surface.
Technical Paper

Military Rotorcraft Flight Test Safety in the Age of Joint Ventures

1999-04-13
1999-01-1437
This paper is an explanation of some of the Flight Test Safety (FTS) methods used to reduce the risk associated with military rotorcraft development. Two flight test programs are addressed, the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor and the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. A short history of the development of each program is provided as background information. Some of the challenges and strengths of joint ventures are also identified and discussed. Four critical elements of an FTS program are identified: 1) Organizational Risk Management (ORM), 2) issue/anomaly resolution, 3) incident recording and corrective action documentation and 4) interface between FTS and other organizations. Methods used in the two programs to address these elements are reviewed and can be applied to other flight test programs.
Technical Paper

Haptics, Instrumentation, and Simulation: Technologies for Enhanced Hand Drilling Training

1999-06-05
1999-01-2283
A fundamental part of airplane manufacturing involves hand drilling of holes for fasteners (bolts and rivets). The integrity of a fastener depends on the quality of its hole, which must be properly positioned, have a circular diameter of correct dimension, and be free of surface flaws and contaminants. A common method of drilling training is for a student to drill holes under the supervision of an instructor who inspects or measures the holes and makes suggestions for improving technique. This training method has proven to be effective, but it is time-consuming and requires considerable personal attention. We have devised instrumentation to monitor critical parameters (drill orientation and forces) so that a student can receive instantaneous visual feedback. This real-time feedback provides the student a better understanding of the drilling process and allows him or her to quickly make improvements.
Technical Paper

Portable Fastener Delivery and Installation System

2003-09-08
2003-01-2953
The Portable Fastener Delivery System or PFDS, has been developed at the Boeing St. Louis facility to streamline the manual fastener installation process. The PFDS delivers various fasteners, on demand, through a delivery tube to an installation tool used by the operator to install the fasteners in an aircraft assembly. This paper describes the PFDS in its current configuration, along with the associated Huck® International (now Alcoa Fastening Systems) installation tooling, as it is being implemented on the F/A-18E/F Nosebarrel Skinning application. As a “portable” system, the PFDS cart can be rolled to any location on the shop floor it might be needed. The system uses a removable storage cassette to cache many sizes and types of fasteners in the moderate quantities that might be required for a particular assembly task. The operator begins the installation sequence by calling for the particular fastener grip length needed using a wireless control pendant.
Technical Paper

Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

2003-07-07
2003-01-2487
Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station's U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBA's service life.
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

2003-07-07
2003-01-2413
NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
Technical Paper

Food Service and Food System Logistics at the South Pole: Lessons for a Lunar/Martian Planetary Surface Mission

2003-07-07
2003-01-2365
Three distinct food system paradigms have been envisioned for long-term space missions. The Skylab, Mir and ISS food systems were based on single-serving prepackaged foods, ready to rehydrate and heat. Bioregenerative food systems, derived from crops grown and processed at the planetary station, have been studied at JSC and KSC. The US Antarctic Program’s Amundsen-Scott South Pole Base uses the third paradigm: bulk packaged food ingredients delivered once a year and used to prepare meals on the station. The packaged food ingredients are supplemented with limited amounts of fresh foods received occasionally during the Antarctic summer, trace amounts of herb and salad crops from the hydroponic garden, and some prepackaged ready to eat foods, so the Pole system is actually a hybrid system; however, it is worth studying as a bulk packaged food system because of the preponderance of bulk packaged food ingredients used.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Lab Module Simulator Build-Up and Validation

2003-07-07
2003-01-2519
As part of the Sustaining Engineering program for the International Space Station (ISS), a ground simulator of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) in the Lab Module was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To predict ITCS performance and address flight issues, this facility is operationally and functionally similar to the flight system and flight-like components were used when available. Flight software algorithms, implemented using the LabVIEW® programming language, were used for monitoring performance and controlling operation. Validation testing of the low temperature loop was completed prior to activation of the Lab module in 2001. Assembly of the moderate temperature loop was completed in 2002 and it was validated in 2003. Even before complete validation the facility was used to address flight issues, successfully demonstrating the ability to add silver biocide and to adjust the pH of the coolant.
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