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Technical Paper

Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station

A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 ± 0.5.
Technical Paper

ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project - 2006 Update

The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered.
Technical Paper

Designing Airplane Cabin Noise Treatment Packages using Statistical Energy Analysis

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a very powerful tool in its ability to guide noise control package design in automobile, airplane and architectural systems. However transmission loss modeling in an SEA frame work has more to do with modeling of sound propagation through foam and fiber noise control materials than classical SEA power flow between groups of resonant modes. The transmission loss problem is reviewed in an SEA frame work with a focus on key paths and input parameter variations on predicted noise control package performance.
Technical Paper

Fasteners Modeling for MSC.Nastran Finite Element Analysis

The distribution of loads between the components of a structural assembly depends not only on their dimensions and material properties but also on the stiffness of fasteners connecting the components. So, the accuracy of the finite element analysis is influenced much by the fastener representation in the model. This paper describes an approach designed specifically for joints with connected plates modeled by shell elements located at plates mid planes. The procedure is based on definition of independent components of a fastener joint flexibility, analysis of each component, and their assembly to represent a complete plate-fastener system of the joint. The proposed modeling technique differs from the traditional approach where all the connected plates are modeled coplanar. The traditional approach is based on calculating a single spring rate for a particular combination of fastener and plate properties.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation on the Airflow and CO2 Transport in the U.S Lab: International Space Station Flight 5A Configuration

The U. S. Laboratory (USL) module was added to the International Space Station (ISS) in Flight 5A, which would boost the Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) functional capabilities of the ISS. In the USL cabin aisle way, the air circulation is provided by a Temperature & Humidity Control (THC) system. To provide adequate ventilation under various open/close combinations of the rack panels, it would be very challenging by conducting many tests prior to the launch of Flight 5A. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation technology is utilized to investigate the airflow in the U.S. Lab for various operating scenarios. A CFD model, which includes the supply diffusers, the return registers, the ventilation of the temporary crew quarter, the gap between the outer pressure shell and all the racks, is modeled. The ventilation performance for the cabin aisle way and air behind panels is addressed.
Technical Paper

Keep the User in Mind: Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks

Security is a serious concern for all Internet users, and all the more so if the implications of security failure can potentially affect safety of flight or the public's perception of air travel. However, when designing networked aircraft and onboard systems, technical security features are only one aspect of the implementation that must be addressed. Given the unique operational, support, and regulatory environment of commercial air transports, careful consideration must also be given to both design and operational requirements in order to develop an aircraft that can be safely operated and maintained within the constraints of the existing infrastructure and personnel available. This paper addresses the unique Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks in commercial air transport aircraft.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Active Flutter Suppression Using Multiple Control Surfaces via Second-Order Controllers

The robust stability of an active flexible wing section with leading- and trailing-edge control surfaces is further investigated via the μ-method. Motivated by a more detailed servo control dynamics, the two controllers K1 and K2, which command the deflections of the trailing-edge flap and the leading-edge flap respectively, are modeled as two second-order shock absorbers in this study. The nominal and robust stability margins, modal properties, critical flutter airspeeds and frequencies are computed to predict the flutter of a nonlinear aeroelastic system and to investigate the aeroservoelastic stability in the μ-framework. The simulation results are compared with the previous study of which the controllers were modeled as the simplified (first-order) shock absorbers. The improved sensitivity to detect the control-structure coupling is observed by applying the second-order shock absorbers in the ASE model.
Technical Paper

Modeling Considerations and Stability Analysis of Aerospace Power Systems with Hybrid AC/DC Distribution

The modeling and simulation of electrical power systems has become a primary design tool for the synthesis of aerospace power systems with hybrid AC/DC distribution. Although in the past the use of extensive time domain simulations using detailed models has been favored, the need to study stability and associated phenomena in this type of power systems-having a high penetration of power electronics loads-has transformed the modeling requirements for aerospace applications. This paper explores different modeling aspects required to study both small-signal and large-signal stability in these systems, providing insight into the development of key system component models-variable frequency generators, line-commutated converters, PWM motor drives and constant power loads, as well as the theoretical foundations based on the Generalized Nyquist Criterion and the Lyapunov Direct and Indirect Methods to fully assess the stability conditions of these power systems.
Technical Paper

Liquid Water Content and Droplet Size Distribution Mass Fractions for Wind Milling Engine Fan Blade Ice Accretion Analysis

A procedure for calculating the engine inlet diffuser section liquid water content and mass fractions of liquid water content associated with the water droplet size distribution for wind milling engine ice accretion analysis is presented. Critical fuel reserve calculation for extended twin-engine operation requires the determination of drag increase due to ice accretion on inoperative wind milling engine fan blade and guide vane.
Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

One Pass Drilling of Precision Holes in Aircraft Structures

This paper will discuss various drill process techniques developed and implemented at the Boeing facility in St. Louis for producing precision fastener holes in a variety of aircraft materials with a single drill pass operation. In other words, we are not drilling a pilot hole before the drill pass or taking a final ream pass after the drill pass. The benefits include cycle time savings, perishable tool savings, and an improvement in the quality of the holes. The types of drilling processes that will be discussed include power feed drilling using portable power tools. Aspects of the drilling process that will be discussed include cutting tools, coolants, equipment, tooling / drill plates and vacuum collection.
Technical Paper

Power Quality Specification Development for More Electric Airplane Architectures

Power quality has become a subject of increased attention for electrical power systems on both commercial and military aircraft. Several power quality guidelines and specification documents exist that govern today's power system operation and the contributing characteristics of electrical load equipment. This paper presents power quality requirements for future Boeing commercial airplanes, driven by advances in aerospace applications of power electronic equipment, increased load demand and complexity, as well as new power system architectures. The influence of new equipment types on electrical system power quality is described including the effects of motor controllers, AC power converters, and large dynamic loads. The impact of power type classifications such as variable frequency AC power and multiple DC voltage levels is also discussed. Simulation results are presented to develop and validate these power quality requirements.
Technical Paper

Dual Electric Spindle Retrofit for Wing Riveters

The Boeing Company (Renton Division) had a requirement for a 30,000 RPM spindle to provide improved surface finish when milling 2034 ice box rivets in hydraulic wing riveters. Electroimpact supplied an electrical spindle which fit into the same cylinder block as the hydraulic spindle. This was reported in SAE Paper #2000-01-3017. Boeing Renton has also now put Electroimpact 20,000 RPM electric drilling spindles into five wing riveting machines so now both spindles in the machine are Electroimpact electric spindles. The electric drill spindle features an HSK 40C holder. Both spindles are powered by the same spindle drive which is alternately connected to the drill and then the shave spindle.
Technical Paper

Fuel Tank Safety on Airplanes

There have been 17 fuel tank ignition events on commercial airplanes since 1959 that have resulted in 542 fatalities and 11 airplane losses. On the military side there have been 12 airplane losses on military version of the B-707 and the B-52 airplanes. The Most notable accident was the TWA 800 in July 1996 on the Boeing 747 which caused loss of 230 lives. This paper looks at the potential root causes of fuel tank explosions and the corrective actions that industry can undertake to minimize the hazard of fuel tank explosions. Fuel tank flammability and ignition sources are considered. The areas looked at are design, installation, and maintenance. Compliance to Federal Airworthiness Regulation are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Forming of Various Aircraft Components

Electromagnetic forming (EMF) technology has been used lately for the joining and assembly of axisymmetric parts in the aerospace and automotive industries. A few case studies of compressive-type joining processes applied on both aluminum and titanium or stainless tubes for aerospace applications are presented. In the first case study, tests were conducted using 2024-T3 drawn tubes joined with a steel end fitting to form a torque tube using different forming variables including: the fitting geometry, material formability and forming power (KJ). The power setting and the fitting geometry were optimized to improve the fatigue life, torque off, and the axial load capability of the torque tube joints to drive the leading and trailing edge high-lift devices.
Technical Paper

Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pumps. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.
Technical Paper

Human Swept Volumes

The Human Swept Volume (HSV) software described here is an interactive tool that allows users to position and animate articulated human models and then generate tessellated swept volume solids. Inverse kinematics and keyframe interpolation are used to define motion sequences, and a voxel-based method is used to create swept volume solid models. The software has been designed to accept various human anthropometry models, which can be imported from other CAD tools. For our initial implementation, we defined several human models based on dimensions from CAESAR/SAE anthropometric data. A case study is described in which the swept volume software was used as a part of a human space occupancy analysis. Results show the advantages of using complete swept volumes for objective measurement comparisons.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant - Phase II

The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously.