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Technical Paper

ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project - 2006 Update

2006-07-17
2006-01-2161
The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Usage Analysis

2006-07-17
2006-01-2094
The International Space Station (ISS) supplies and recycles water. Until the water system loop is closed with 100 percent recycling, monitoring water usage on-orbit is critical. The water supply on-orbit is monitored to stay above the skip cycle. If the rate is higher than predicted, then the water supply may become too low to support the crew. Both U.S. and Russian water experts use the water usage rate to determine the quantity of water to be re-supplied on each vehicle. The paper provides an overview of the ISS water system. It discusses the newly revised water balance. The paper describes the methodology used to calculate water usage rates. The analysis provides the water usage rates for each Expedition crew. The analysis compares these results to the consumable reports and the Russian water expert reports. The paper provides a discussion of the results of the various usage rates. It provides the most accurate methods for assessing water usage.
Technical Paper

Designing Airplane Cabin Noise Treatment Packages using Statistical Energy Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2316
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a very powerful tool in its ability to guide noise control package design in automobile, airplane and architectural systems. However transmission loss modeling in an SEA frame work has more to do with modeling of sound propagation through foam and fiber noise control materials than classical SEA power flow between groups of resonant modes. The transmission loss problem is reviewed in an SEA frame work with a focus on key paths and input parameter variations on predicted noise control package performance.
Technical Paper

Fasteners Modeling for MSC.Nastran Finite Element Analysis

2000-10-10
2000-01-5585
The distribution of loads between the components of a structural assembly depends not only on their dimensions and material properties but also on the stiffness of fasteners connecting the components. So, the accuracy of the finite element analysis is influenced much by the fastener representation in the model. This paper describes an approach designed specifically for joints with connected plates modeled by shell elements located at plates mid planes. The procedure is based on definition of independent components of a fastener joint flexibility, analysis of each component, and their assembly to represent a complete plate-fastener system of the joint. The proposed modeling technique differs from the traditional approach where all the connected plates are modeled coplanar. The traditional approach is based on calculating a single spring rate for a particular combination of fastener and plate properties.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation on the Airflow and CO2 Transport in the U.S Lab: International Space Station Flight 5A Configuration

2001-07-09
2001-01-2255
The U. S. Laboratory (USL) module was added to the International Space Station (ISS) in Flight 5A, which would boost the Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) functional capabilities of the ISS. In the USL cabin aisle way, the air circulation is provided by a Temperature & Humidity Control (THC) system. To provide adequate ventilation under various open/close combinations of the rack panels, it would be very challenging by conducting many tests prior to the launch of Flight 5A. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation technology is utilized to investigate the airflow in the U.S. Lab for various operating scenarios. A CFD model, which includes the supply diffusers, the return registers, the ventilation of the temporary crew quarter, the gap between the outer pressure shell and all the racks, is modeled. The ventilation performance for the cabin aisle way and air behind panels is addressed.
Technical Paper

Keep the User in Mind: Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks

2007-09-17
2007-01-3785
Security is a serious concern for all Internet users, and all the more so if the implications of security failure can potentially affect safety of flight or the public's perception of air travel. However, when designing networked aircraft and onboard systems, technical security features are only one aspect of the implementation that must be addressed. Given the unique operational, support, and regulatory environment of commercial air transports, careful consideration must also be given to both design and operational requirements in order to develop an aircraft that can be safely operated and maintained within the constraints of the existing infrastructure and personnel available. This paper addresses the unique Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks in commercial air transport aircraft.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Active Flutter Suppression Using Multiple Control Surfaces via Second-Order Controllers

2007-09-17
2007-01-3921
The robust stability of an active flexible wing section with leading- and trailing-edge control surfaces is further investigated via the μ-method. Motivated by a more detailed servo control dynamics, the two controllers K1 and K2, which command the deflections of the trailing-edge flap and the leading-edge flap respectively, are modeled as two second-order shock absorbers in this study. The nominal and robust stability margins, modal properties, critical flutter airspeeds and frequencies are computed to predict the flutter of a nonlinear aeroelastic system and to investigate the aeroservoelastic stability in the μ-framework. The simulation results are compared with the previous study of which the controllers were modeled as the simplified (first-order) shock absorbers. The improved sensitivity to detect the control-structure coupling is observed by applying the second-order shock absorbers in the ASE model.
Technical Paper

Modeling Considerations and Stability Analysis of Aerospace Power Systems with Hybrid AC/DC Distribution

2006-11-07
2006-01-3038
The modeling and simulation of electrical power systems has become a primary design tool for the synthesis of aerospace power systems with hybrid AC/DC distribution. Although in the past the use of extensive time domain simulations using detailed models has been favored, the need to study stability and associated phenomena in this type of power systems-having a high penetration of power electronics loads-has transformed the modeling requirements for aerospace applications. This paper explores different modeling aspects required to study both small-signal and large-signal stability in these systems, providing insight into the development of key system component models-variable frequency generators, line-commutated converters, PWM motor drives and constant power loads, as well as the theoretical foundations based on the Generalized Nyquist Criterion and the Lyapunov Direct and Indirect Methods to fully assess the stability conditions of these power systems.
Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

2007-09-17
2007-01-3813
Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

Power Quality Specification Development for More Electric Airplane Architectures

2002-10-29
2002-01-3206
Power quality has become a subject of increased attention for electrical power systems on both commercial and military aircraft. Several power quality guidelines and specification documents exist that govern today's power system operation and the contributing characteristics of electrical load equipment. This paper presents power quality requirements for future Boeing commercial airplanes, driven by advances in aerospace applications of power electronic equipment, increased load demand and complexity, as well as new power system architectures. The influence of new equipment types on electrical system power quality is described including the effects of motor controllers, AC power converters, and large dynamic loads. The impact of power type classifications such as variable frequency AC power and multiple DC voltage levels is also discussed. Simulation results are presented to develop and validate these power quality requirements.
Technical Paper

Integrated Orbiter/International Space Station Air Quality Analysis for Post-Mission 2A.1 Risk Mitigation

2000-07-10
2000-01-2250
Crewmember ingress of the International Space Station (ISS) before that time accorded by the original ISS assembly sequence, and thus before the ISS capability to adequately control the levels of temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide, poses significant impacts to ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS). Among the most significant considerations necessitated by early ingress are those associated with the capability of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Orbiter to control the aforementioned levels, the capability of the ISS to deliver the conditioned air among the ISS elements, and the definition and distribution of crewmember metabolic heat, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Even under the assumption that all Orbiter and ISS elements would be operating as designed, condensation control and crewmember comfort were paramount issues preceding each of the ISS Missions 2A and 2A.1.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003 - 2004

2004-07-19
2004-01-2382
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Human Swept Volumes

2004-06-15
2004-01-2190
The Human Swept Volume (HSV) software described here is an interactive tool that allows users to position and animate articulated human models and then generate tessellated swept volume solids. Inverse kinematics and keyframe interpolation are used to define motion sequences, and a voxel-based method is used to create swept volume solid models. The software has been designed to accept various human anthropometry models, which can be imported from other CAD tools. For our initial implementation, we defined several human models based on dimensions from CAESAR/SAE anthropometric data. A case study is described in which the swept volume software was used as a part of a human space occupancy analysis. Results show the advantages of using complete swept volumes for objective measurement comparisons.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

2004-11-02
2004-01-3100
As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation and Carbon Dioxide Concentration Study of International Space Station Node 2 with Attached Modules

2004-07-19
2004-01-2498
Crew health is dependent on the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere breathed. Often, models used for concentration have used the assumption that each module of the space station is well mixed, i.e. that the CO2 concentration is constant throughout the module. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is used to assess and validate the accuracy of that assumption. The concentration of carbon dioxide as calculated by CFD was compared to the concentration as calculated by a lumped parameter model. The assumption that the module is well mixed allows the use of relatively simple models, which can be developed and run quickly in order to support decisions for on-orbit analysis. CFD models generate more detailed information, such as CO2 gradients within the modules and airflow and mixing characteristics. However, CFD models, particularly transient models, take longer to develop and use.
Technical Paper

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Air Flow Characteristics in the Columbus Module

2004-07-19
2004-01-2500
Ventilation characteristics of the Columbus module are numerically predicted on the basis of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. Effects of air supply diffuser modeling on computed flow are analyzed. An “effective diffuser” model that considerably reduces the number of computational cells for Columbus CFD ventilation analysis is proposed and tested. The computational models are verified by a comparison with the experimental data available. Special attention is paid to distinctions in fields of the time-averaged absolute velocity magnitude and the whole mean velocity that are due to the contribution of large-scale fluctuations. A technique to evaluate spatial distribution of the time-averaged absolute velocity magnitude using data of RANS steady-state predictions is suggested.
Technical Paper

Electronic Systems Health Monitoring Using Electromagnetic Emissions

2004-11-02
2004-01-3161
This paper provides an overview of a method to assess the health of electronic circuits by non-invasively monitoring the electromagnetic emissions. Two phases of laboratory testing have been done to date, during which subtle functional degradations were added to circuitry to simulate several “soft” electronic failure mechanisms which progressively lead to reduced circuitry performance prior to becoming a “hard” failure, detectable by standard built-in tests. The hardware tested included a desktop PC power supply during initial concept feasibility activities, followed by subsequent testing of a COTS triplex channel, distributed, digital flight control system. Lab testing details, data analysis results, and algorithm development are described.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Flight Control Development on the Active Aeroelastic Wing Aircraft

2004-11-02
2004-01-3116
A highly modified F/A-18 aircraft is being used to demonstrate that aeroelastic wing twist can be used to roll a high performance aircraft. A production F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft uses a combination of aileron deflection, differential horizontal tail deflection and differential leading edge flap deflection to roll the aircraft at various Mach numbers and altitudes. The Active Aeroelastic Wing program is demonstrating that aeroelastic wing twist can be used in lieu of the horizontal tail to provide autonomous roll control at high dynamic pressures. Aerodynamic and loads data have been gathered from the Phase I AAW flight test program. Now control laws have been developed to exploit aeroelastic wing twist and provide autonomous flight control of the AAW aircraft during Phase II. Wing control surfaces are being deflected in non-standard ways to create aeroelastic wing twist and develop the required rolling moments without use of the horizontal tail.
Technical Paper

ISS Launch to Activation EVA Cooperative Design

2000-07-10
2000-01-2441
The design challenges presented by the late evolving International Space Station (ISS) Launch to Activation (LTA) thermal concerns required concerted effort and tradeoffs to be made between affected subsystems. The resulting design and mission planning modifications were made with consideration of thermal, electrical power system and extravehicular activity impacts in mind. It was an excellent exercise in cooperative problem solving that allowed each subsystem visibility into potential impacts of their efforts on other related systems and therefore work towards balanced solutions. It was also an excellent exercise in preparing these subsystems for future quick response cooperative problem solving that will be required to support ISS during its lifetime.
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