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Technical Paper

Structural and Radiation Shielding Properties of Non-parasitic, Multi-functional Microporous Carbon for Aerospace Applications

2007-07-09
2007-01-3111
AFR, Inc. is developing a multifunctional Carbon material that, in addition to excellent radiation shielding characteristics, is appropriate for certain energy storage applications. As an excellent Hydrogen gas sorbent, it increases the usable storage capacity of a gas cylinder by ∼25% at 3500 PSI and by ∼150% at 500 PSI. Our ongoing NASA Langley funded study shows that when a sorbent-filled tank is charged with hydrogen, it provides shielding superior to polyethylene against most types of ionizing particles. Even as hydrogen is consumed, the carbon and tank ensure that significant radiation shielding capability is maintained. In addition to storing hydrogen, the carbon material also displays considerable strength. In this paper, we explore some of its mechanical properties that show this material is very versatile and highly multifunctional.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Swept-Frequency Transfer Function and Pulse Testing of a Full Scale Graphite Wingbox Test Article to Support Lightning Indirect Effects Analysis

2001-09-11
2001-01-2915
This paper reports some of the results of a NASA-prototype composite wingbox direct drive test, performed in the Boeing Lightning Lab from October 23, 2000 to June 8, 2001. The test data is being used to support computer analysis program and modeling efforts that are researching issues concerned with composite fuel tank designs.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of MAFIA / Microwave Studio Calculations with Experimental Results for Indirect Lightning Effects on Carbon Composite Structures

2001-09-11
2001-01-2886
A study of indirect lightning effects on carbon composite structures with internal tubing is performed using the ‘ab initio’ Maxwell equation codes MAFIA and Microwave Studio (MWS). The modeling is performed both in the time and frequency domain by a finite difference method that can accommodate anisotropic media. Both time and frequency domains are used to better reflect the actual testing performed on aircraft. Solutions in frequency domain also help to overcome limitations of the time domain calculations. Time calculations cannot be performed for pulses longer than 100–200 μs due to the Courant condition and computer time limitations and hence, low frequency resonances of the system could be missed. Three dimensional frequency domain calculations are available with MAFIA and MWS, while time domain results are available in MAFIA, MWS and EMA3D.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Prediction of Lightning Indirect Effects Using 2-D Analytical Tools with Measured Data from Two Composite Test Fixtures

2001-09-11
2001-01-2904
A comparison was done of the prediction capabilities for lightning indirect effects of two two-dimensional (2-D) computer codes using two graphite structural test fixtures. The two codes evaluated were an internal Boeing Method-of-Moments code and a commercially available Boundary Element method code. The codes were compared against each other and against test data. The purpose was to evaluate the prediction capabilities of both codes for use in predicting lightning indirect effects on internal components of graphite structure. Since 2-D codes are much easier to use than 3-D codes, they could be widely used in trade studies and design evaluations for lightning indirect effects protection of composite aircraft. The first code, REDIST, is a Method-of-Moments code developed in the 1980’s for use on the B-2. The REDIST code has short run times and is somewhat easier to use than the second code that was investigated.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Numerical Techniques for the Study of Lightning Indirect Effects

2001-09-11
2001-01-2894
A comparison of various numerical tools and techniques was performed for calculating the lightning indirect effects to composite structures and internal systems. This paper is a summary of the initial comparison results. Detailed results of each technique considered are given in additional separate papers presented during this conference. The modeling considered current distributions over and within composite surfaces and the coupling of current and voltages to internal systems such as wire bundle cables and hydraulic and fuel tubes. The models were compared to each other and to measured data from low level swept continuous wave (LLCW) tests performed on two test fixtures. Other features of the codes such as run time, ease of use, computer requirements, availability of documentation and technical support, etc. are compared as well.
Technical Paper

Resistive Slab Modeling for Predicting Lightning Currents in Fastened Composite Structure

2001-09-11
2001-01-2875
Analysis of lightning direct-effects damage to structure and the design of test specimens and test fixtures to investigate these effects requires knowledge of structural boundary currents resulting from a lightning attachment. Since no convenient method for direct measurement of structural boundary conditions was available, a model called Resistive Slab Analysis at Boundaries (RSLAB) was developed to fill this need. RSLAB utilizes the physical and electrical properties of interconnected structural slabs to compute the potential distribution and current flow at structural boundaries due to simulated lightning current injected into the structure. The analysis results are validated by measurements on a fastened composite wingbox.
Technical Paper

Swept-Frequency Transfer Function and Pulse Testing of a Small Scale Graphite Test Article for Comparison With Lightning Indirect Effects Analysis

2001-09-11
2001-01-2927
This paper reports the results of swept frequency transfer function and pulse testing performed on a small graphite test article with an aluminum tube attached to it and driven in parallel. The data is being used to support the validation of analytical models and tools for lightning indirect effects. In addition, swept frequency and pulse testing techniques are compared.
Technical Paper

Application of the Finite Difference Time Domain Code EMA3D to the Modeling of Indirect Lightning Effects in a Composite Panel and Wing Box

2001-09-11
2001-01-2911
The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method (as implemented in the commercial software package EMA3D) is used to model indirect lightning effects in a composite three bladed panel and a composite wing-box. The analysis is compared with low level continuous wave (LLCW) tests performed in the Boeing Lightning Effects Laboratory. Measured data include transfer functions for currents induced on metal tubing interior to the three-bladed-panel and wing-box. The thin wire and thin plate formalisms provided in EMA3D are used to model the composite surfaces and metallic conductors such as pipes in the wing-box. The wing-box is simulated both with and without apertures. The modeling results showed excellent agreement with measurements over a broad frequency range demonstrating the usefulness of FDTD as a predictive tool for lightning frequencies.
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