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Technical Paper

Development of an Active Steering Control System in a Car Driving Simulator

An active torque control steering system is developed and implemented in a car simulator. The simulator has a comprehensive and accurate full vehicle dynamics and road/environment models. A simple model of the driving simulator’s vehicle was developed and a PID controller, which uses the vehicle’s yaw angle, and position, was designed to control vehicle steering torque. The controller is then integrated with the driving simulator program, emulating the real world conditions. The developed system was tested in various obstacle avoidance and lane change scenarios in the car simulator, and the vehicle was able to avoid the stationary obstacles autonomously.
Technical Paper

Far-Side Impact Vehicle Simulations with MADYMO

To date, anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) have not been designed with consideration for human motion in far-side impacts. Previous tests with a cadaver and a BioSID dummy at the Medical College of Wisconsin confirmed that the dummy does not suitably model the human motion. To further evaluate different ATDs in far-side crashes, MAthematical DYnamic MOdeling (MADYMO) was employed. The modeling showed that the motion of a Hybrid III, BioSID, EuroSid1, EuroSID2, or SID2s did not accurately reflect the motion of a human cadaver under the same impact configurations as the cadaver test. The MADYMO human facet model was found to closely reproduce the kinematics of the cadaver test. The effect of varying console designs on occupant kinematics is presented in this paper. The human facet model appears to be a good interim tool for the evaluation of countermeasures in far-side crashes.
Technical Paper

Injury Mechanism of the Head and Face of Children in Side Impacts

This study assessed the primary involved physical components attributed to the head and face injuries of child occupants seated directly adjacent to the stuck side of a vehicle in a side impact collision. The findings presented in this study were based upon analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) for the years 1993–2007. Injury analysis was conducted for those nearside child occupants aged between 1–12 years-old. The involved children were classified as toddler-type, booster-type, or belted-type occupants. These classifications were based upon the recommended restraint system for the occupant. Injury mechanisms were assessed for the child occupants in each of the three groups. A detailed study of NASS/CDS cases was conducted to provide a greater understanding of the associated injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Frontal Crash Test Force-Deformation Data for Vehicle to Vehicle Frontal Crash Compatibility

Vehicle stiffness is one of the three major factors in vehicle to vehicle compatibility in a frontal crash; the other two factors are vehicle mass and frontal geometry. Vehicle to vehicle compatibility in turn is an increasingly important topic due to the rapid change in the size and characteristics of the automotive fleet, particularly the increase of the percentage of trucks and SUVs. Due to the non-linear nature of the mechanics of vehicle structure, frontal stiffness is not a properly defined metric. This research is aimed at developing a well defined method to quantify frontal stiffness for vehicle-to-vehicle crash compatibility. The method to be developed should predict crash outcome and controlling the defined metric should improve the crash outcome. The criterion that is used to judge the aggressivity of a vehicle in this method is the amount of deformation caused to the vulnerable vehicles when crashed with the subject vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Occupant Position and Air Bag Inflation Parameters on Driver Injury Measures

This paper investigates the effects of driver airbag inflation characteristics, airbag relative position, airbag to dummy relative velocity, and steering column characteristics using a finite element model of a vehicle, air bag, and Hybrid III 50% male dummy. Simulation is conducted in a static test environment using a validated finite element model. Several static simulation tests are performed where the air bag module's position is mounted in a rigid steering wheel and the vertical and horizontal distances are varied relative to the dummy. Three vertical alignments are used: one position corresponds to the head centered on module, another position corresponds to the neck centered on module, and the third position centers the chest on the module. Horizontal alignments vary from 0 mm to 50 mm to 100 mm. All of these tests are simulated using a typical pre-1998 type inflation curve (mass flow rate of gas entering the bag).
Technical Paper

Study of Potential Mechanisms of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta Using InSitu Experiments

Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) is an important transportation-related injury. This study investigated TRA mechanisms using in situ human cadaver experiments. Four quasi-static tests and one dynamic test were performed. The quasi-static experiments were conducted by perturbing the mediastinal structures of the cadavers. The mechanisms investigated included anterior, superior, and lateral displacement of the heart and aortic arch. The resulting injuries ranged from partial tears to complete transections. All injuries occurred within the peri-isthmic region. Intimal tears were associated with the primary injuries. The average failure load and stretch were 148 N and 30 percent for the quasi-static tests. This study illustrates that TRA can result from appropriate application of nominal levels of longitudinal load and tension. The results demonstrate that intraluminal pressure and whole-body acceleration are not required for TRA to occur.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intelligent Multimode Speed Adaptation System

According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) speed-related traffic fatalities accounted for 31% of total fatalities on U.S. roadways in 2003. Traditional speed control methods suffer from significant shortcomings. Adaptation (ISA) systems hold the promise of safer roadways through improving driver compliance with speed limits. This paper describes the development of a new multi-modal speed adaptation system to be tested in the CISR car-driving simulator. The system is capable of adapting to the driver's driving style and provides appropriate warning for over speeding based on the vehicle speed, speed limit, driver individual preferences, and risk factor. A hierarchical manager module determines the warning strategy. The adequate warning strategy is specific to driving situations and individual characteristics. Modes of warnings being considered include VISUAL, and HAPTIC.
Journal Article

A Study of the Rear Seat Occupant Safety using a 10-Year-Old Child Dummy in the New Car Assessment Program

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a total of 28 frontal crashes in the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) involving the 10-year-old child Hybrid III dummy. The 10-year-old child dummy was in the rear seat. All types of vehicles (passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans and pick-up trucks) were tested to assess the effect of restraint systems such as booster and pretensioner on the rear seat occupant. In this study, the readings of the 10-year-old child dummy in rear-left and rear-right seat positions are examined. The authors apply a possible 5 star rating system, based on head and chest readings of the 10-year-old dummy. The paper also assesses the safety performance of rear seat occupants and the effect of the restraint systems on a child in the rear seat. This paper suggests that a star rating for rear seat occupants is independent of the present ratings for the driver and front adult passenger in NCAP.
Technical Paper

Development of Optical Trace Gas Monitoring Technology for NASA Human Space Flight

Investigators from three institutions have partnered in a Rapid Technology Development Team whose goal will be the deployment of laser-based sensors for air-constituent measurements on board spacecrafts. The sensors will eventually be based on Type II Interband Cascade (IC) lasers being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These lasers will be used in implementations of both photo acoustic spectroscopy based on the use of quartz tuning fork oscillators as a resonant acoustic sensor (QE-PAS) and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS). In the first year of the program, work at Rice and George Washington Universities has focused on the development of both QEPAS and CRDS sensors for ammonia using near infrared lasers. Simultaneously, the JPL portion of the team has fabricated both Fabry Perot and distributed feedback lasers in the mid infrared that can be used for formaldehyde detection.
Technical Paper

A Suitable Platform for Storm Penetration, Risk Analysis for the SPA-10 Aircraft Modification

The SPA-10 project, sponsored by U.S. National Science Foundation, is to acquire and qualify a replacement for the retired T-28 “storm penetration” aircraft previously used to acquire meteorological data to enable understanding and modelling of mid-continent thunderstorms. The National Science Foundation selected the Fairchild A-10 (bailed from the U.S. Air Force) as the platform to be adapted to perform the storm penetration mission to altitudes of eleven kilometers, and funded Naval Postgraduate School’s Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) as prime contractor. An expert panel conducted a review of the SPA-10 project in 2014 and recommended a risk analysis addressing hazards to the aircraft and pilots, such as icing, hail, turbulence and lightning. This paper presents the results of the risk analysis performed in response to this need, including recommended mitigations.
Journal Article

Crashworthiness and Numerical Analysis of Composite Inserts in Vehicle Structure

The objective of this research is to understand the crashworthiness performance of composite inserts in vehicle structure and to improve the numerical model of steel-composite combined structure for providing better prediction in the design process of composite inserts. A simplified steel-composite combined beam structure is used for three-point bending tests. Epoxy-based structural foam and 33% short glass fiber reinforced nylon composite insert are considered as composite fillers in empty sections of double hat-type steel beam structure. Four cases based on the different combination of composite materials are considered. In the series of physical three-point bending tests, the force-displacement (F-D) curves and material behaviors are investigated. The test results show that the composite insert greatly contributes to improve the crashworthiness of beam structure as well as to reduce the vehicle weight.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Crashworthiness of Structural Composite Components in Frontal and Side NCAP Tests

This paper investigates the crashworthiness of structural composite components in frontal and side crash tests. In addition, the safety benefits of composites applications in future lighter vehicles are studied. The methodology of the research includes two steps: (1) developing a light-weight vehicle based on a current finite element (FE) vehicle using advanced plastics and composites, and (2) evaluating the crashworthiness of the light-weighted vehicle by frontal and side New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) test simulations. An FE model of a 2007 Chevrolet Silverado, which is a body-on-frame pickup truck, was selected as the baseline vehicle for light-weighting. By light-weighting components in the Silverado, the vehicle weight was reduced 19%. As a result, the content of plastics and composite in the light-weighted vehicle was 23.6% of the total weight of the light-weight vehicle.