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Technical Paper

Maintaining Diesel Fuel Performance at Lowest Cost with Fuel Additives

1985-11-11
852224
Multifunctional additives can compensate for lower quality diesel fuel. Performance and quality have been decreasing worldwide. This has resulted largely from increased use of heavier crude oils and more severe processing to achieve necessary fuel product mix. Fuel additives provide the refiner and marketer with an economic approach to restoring performance and quality. Additives can be formulated to solve many problems related to deposits and wear, which are major factors affecting engine power, economy, emissions and durability. They are of critical importance to the vehicle owner/ operator to maintain dependability and low operating cost. At the same time, the refiner benefits economically through the use of lower cost crudes, greater operational flexibility and ease of adjusting final fuel blends to meet specifications. Typical additive components include: detergent dispersants, inhibitors, stabilizers, cetane improvers, and flow improvers.
Technical Paper

Understanding MTF Additive Effects on Synchroniser Friction - Part 2, Structure Performance Analysis

2012-09-10
2012-01-1668
Specific frictional properties are essential to provide correct and pleasurable shifting in a manual transmission. Synchroniser rings are being manufactured from an increasingly wider range of materials, and it is important to understand synchroniser-additive interactions in order to develop tailored lubricants that provide the desired frictional performance. This paper describes a study of the interaction of various friction modifier additives with a range of synchroniser materials in order to better understand the potential to develop lubricants that provide optimal frictional performance across a wide range of manual transmission-synchroniser systems.
Technical Paper

What Does the Engine Designer Need to Know About Engine Oils?

1982-02-01
821571
The functions of engine oil are reviewed. The chemistry of engine oil additives and synthetics is described in terms for the non-chemist. The latest SAE engine oil viscosity classifications and API service designations are detailed. Developments underway to upgrade engine oil quality are discussed.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Automotive Gear Lubrication

1984-09-01
841213
This paper provides an overview of gear lubrication related to automotive equipment. A brief background in various aspects of lubrication, including lubrication theory, lubricant evaluation, performance designations, and formulation technology, is presented. This information is designed to assist those involved in the selection of automotive gear lubricants.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Additives for Performance/Distribution/Quality

1984-09-01
841211
Additives are an integral part of today's fuels. Together with carefully formulated base fuel composition, they contribute to efficiency, dependability and long life of gasoline and diesel engines. As a primer, this paper describes the range of chemical additives formulated for gasoline and diesel fuel and their effects. Specific functions and benefits of additives, typical use levels, and test methods for evaluation are discussed. Additive usage may be divided into three major categories: a) to satisfy desired levels of performance in engines, b) to insure delivery of uncontaminated, on-specification fuels to the end user and c) achieve necessary chemical/physical properties as manufactured by the refiner.
Technical Paper

Balancing Crankcase Lubricant Performance with Catalyst Life

1984-10-01
841407
Emissions system durability may be influenced by many engine oil formulation variables. Previous studies have suggested that emissions system durability is optimized by high metal/phosphorus ratios. Reducing the level of phosphorus in the engine oils has also been suggested as a means of prolonging the efficiency of the catalytic converter. This paper explores engine oil formulation variables which may influence the efficiency of the emissions system. Phosphorus type and amount are examined as potential catalytic deactivators, as well as detergent metal interactions with the phosphorus. Dynamometer and over-the-road test data are presented which suggest that the volatility characteristics of the phosphorus component in the engine oil may influence the degree of catalyst contamination. To explore fully the many variables, however, will require an emissions performance test.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Buildup Variables on the ASTM Sequence VI Fuel Efficient Oil Test

1990-10-01
902164
Using a seven-step quality improvement process, some of the engine build-up factors adversely influencing the severity and precision of the Sequence VI dynamometer test were examined. Insights from engineering (theory) and database (statistical) analyses enabled a 23 factorial experiment to identify oil ring tension, piston ring side clearance, and piston fit as critical parameters in a 3-oil, 9-engine, 28-test program. High ring tension was shown to emphasize the friction reducing capability of higher performing oils and the deficiency of a lower performing oil. Interactions were noted. A helpful correlation of test severity with the engine calibration indicators was shown.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Properties and Additive Effects on Dl Injector Deposit Formation

1993-10-01
932738
A test was developed by the Cummins Engine Company to evaluate Diesel fuel quality and potential additive effects. This test utilizes a Cummins L10 Diesel engine with a PT fuel system and stepped plunger injectors. A modified CRC rating system is used to quantify deposit levels. This paper further investigates the L10 Injector Depositing Test and will focus on Diesel fuel and additive variables. In the original work, the bulk of the data was collected on an industry standard reference fuel, Cat 1-H, as opposed to commercially available Diesel fuels. Commercially available Diesel fuel varies in composition with regard to sulfur level, percent aromatics, final distillation end point, and cetane number. To evaluate these fuel properties and their possible effects on injector deposit formation, two test matrices were designed. The first experiment is a 12-run fractional factorial design with four factors: additive level, sulfur, aromatics, and 90 percent distillation point (T90).
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Lubricity Development of a Constant Load Scuffing Test Using the Ball on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE)

1993-10-01
932691
A test method has been developed which provides for the rapid measurement of the scuffing performance of diesel fuel using the Ball-On-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE). A test can be completed in less than one hour. Data has been generated indicating that the method achieves good discrimination between fuels of varying lubricity and correlates well with fuel performance as measured in pump tests.
Technical Paper

Field Test Data Analysis Techniques

1992-10-01
922201
Accurate, timely field test results are necessary to develop and validate lubricants meeting frequently changing performance requirements. Field tests can also provide valuable information about performance deficiencies (e.g., soot related wear) which are not apparent in laboratory development tests. Since field tests are time intensive and increasingly expensive, it is imperative that the data generated provide meaningful results with reasonable expenditures. The data generation and analysis process are being constantly improved according to the principles of quality management. Part of the process improvement focuses on accurate, realistic treatment of the data since more variation is typically observed in field tests than in laboratory tests. One of the most difficult analytical processes occurs with oil consumption data.
Technical Paper

Modeling of ASTM Sequence IIIE Piston Ring Land Deposit Formation

1992-10-01
922293
Piston ring land deposit formation is a key performance criterion in the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test. Because engine testing of lubricant formulation variables is expensive, a ring land deposit bench test was developed replicating the Sequence IIIE bulk oxidation and deposit formation mechanisms. Following an initial bulk oxidation of the candidate oils, deposits similar in chemical composition and morphology to Sequence IIIE ring land deposits are produced in a modified panel coker apparatus. Good correlation with the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test has been established. Lubricant additive and base oil effects on oxidation control and deposit formation have been investigated. Their influences on lubricant formulation strategy are discussed.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Lubrication Needs for M85 Fueling Using Short-Trip Field and Engine Dynomometer Tests

1992-10-01
922299
The technology has been developed which will allow manufacturers to produce cars capable of running on methanol/gasoline blends with a methanol content up to 85% (i.e., M85). These cars will operate on varying methanol/gasoline ratios without any adjustments from the driver. The dual-fuel capability is attractive since vehicle use will not be handicapped by a restricted fuel distribution system. In addition, it provides the option of running on an environmentally “cleaner” fuel where it is available. The advent of fuel-flexible vehicles encourages the development of lubricants which will satisfy the demands of both fuels. The unique properties of methanol, however, increase the challenges of meeting the lubricant performance needs. Field and engine dynamometer testing have been aimed at understanding the response of key lubricant variables with M85. Short-trip, cold-weather conditions have been of particular concern.
Technical Paper

Automotive Traction Fluids: A Shift in Direction for Transmission Fluid Technology

2000-10-16
2000-01-2906
Driven by global demands for improved fuel economy and reduced emissions, significant improvements have been made to engine designs and control systems, vehicle aerodynamics, and fuel quality. Improvements, such as the continuously slipping torque converter, have also been made to automatic transmissions to increase vehicle efficiency. Recently, belt-continuously variable transmissions (b-CVTs) have been commercialized with the promise of significant fuel economy improvements over conventional automatic transmissions. Automotive traction drive transmissions may soon join belt-CVTs as alternative automatic transmission technology. Much of the information reported in technical and trade publications has been on the mechanics of these traction drive systems. As automotive traction drives move closer to commercial reality, more attention must be given to the performance requirements of the automotive traction fluid.
Technical Paper

Increasing Diesel Fuel Filter Life Through the Use of Fuel Additives

2000-10-16
2000-01-2889
Inconsistent fuel filter life is a problem that continues to plague most heavy-duty diesel fleets. It has been proven that fuel filter life can be strongly influenced by the thermal and oxidative stability of diesel fuel that is being filtered. Filters consistently exposed to diesel fuels that produce a tar-like substance in abundance upon heating (sometimes termed “asphaltenes”) will plug far more rapidly than filters exposed to diesel fuel that does not easily form these tar-like substances. Fuel additives have long been used to maintain fuel system cleanliness and to improve diesel fuel stability. It follows logically that such additives could have a positive impact on fuel filter life by maintaining the cleanliness of the fuel filtration media. This paper reviews the laboratory evaluations and field tests that were run to compare fuel filter life in both the presence and absence of diesel fuel additives.
Technical Paper

Step Forward In Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction: System Incorporating a Novel Low Emission Diesel Fuel Combined With a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2001-08-20
2001-01-2491
Water-emulsified diesel fuel technology has been proven to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously at relatively low cost compared to other pollution-reducing strategies. The value of this technology is that it requires absolutely no engine adjustments or modifications to reduce harmful emissions. Technologies that break the NOx -particulate trade-off are virtually non-existent, therefore understanding how the water contained in an emulsified fuel can reduce both NOx and PM simultaneously is critical. To understand this phenomenon, emulsified fuels with varying water levels (0 to 20%) were evaluated in a multi-cylinder marine engine using three different injection timings. This testing in an actual engine confirms that as the water level is increased the amount of NOx and PM are reduced without compromising engine performance.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Additives for Performance/Distribution Quality - II

1986-09-08
861179
Additives are an integral part of today's fuels. Together with carefully formulated base fuel composition, they contribute to efficiency, dependability and long life of gasoline and diesel engines. As a primer, this paper describes the range of chemical additives formulated for gasoline and diesel fuel and their effects. Specific functions and benefits of additives, typical use levels, and test methods for evaluation are discussed. Additive usage may be divided into three major categories: a) to satisfy desired levels of performance in engines, b) to insure delivery of uncontaminated, on-specification fuels to the end user and c) achieve necessary chemical/physical properties as manufactured by the refiner.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel and Additives on Combustion Chamber Deposits

1994-10-01
941890
The effects of gasoline composition, as represented in typical regular and premium unleaded gasolines and fuel additives, on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) were investigated in BMW and Ford tests. In addition, the influences of engine lubricant oil and ethanol oxygenate on CCD were examined in Ford 2.3L engine dynamometer tests. Also, additive effects of packages based on mineral oil fluidizers versus synthetic fluidizers were studied in several different engines for CCD. Finally, a new method for evaluating the effect of fluidizers on valve sticking is introduced.
Technical Paper

Physical Processes Associated with Low Temperature Mineral Oil Rheology: Why the Gelation Index Is Not Necessarily a Relative Measure of Gelation

2000-06-19
2000-01-1806
The intent of industry and OEM factory fill oil specifications is to ensure lubricant pumping performance at low temperatures through rheological measurements using the Mini Rotary Viscometer and Scanning Brookfield tests. Often these tests provide conflicting information, yet lubricant formulations must be optimized to meet requirements of both tests. At the root of this issue is how test information is interpreted, since ultimately it is that interpretation that influences how specifications are set. In this paper, we focus on understanding the Scanning Brookfield test's gelation index which is part of ILSAC GF-2 and GF-3 specifications; our objective is to understand what is measured and its relation to meaningful low temperature lubricant performance. We approach this objective by measuring the low temperature rheology of mineral oils and lubricants formulated from these oils.
Technical Paper

Formulating for ILSAC GF-2 - Part 2: Obtaining Fuel Economy Enhancement from a Motor Oil in a Modern Low Friction Engine

1995-10-01
952343
The proposed International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) GF-2 specification requires Passenger Car Motor Oils to provide enhanced fuel economy in a modern low friction engine (Sequence VIA). This paper details fundamental studies of lubricant effects on fuel economy as measured by this low friction engine. Several conventional friction modifiers were tested with surprising results. One ester friction modifier, Ester B, which provides excellent fuel economy improvement in the Sequence VI, was found to be detrimental to the Sequence VIA. A second ester friction modifier, Ester A, performed as expected. Additionally, two molybdenum compounds, which are reported to provide excellent fuel economy in the Sequence VI, showed no fuel economy benefit in the Sequence VIA.
Technical Paper

Formulating for ILSAC GF-2 - Part 1: Obtaining Valve Train Wear Protection While Reducing the Phosphorus Content of a Motor Oil

1995-10-01
952342
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) GF-2 requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oils (PCMOs) will lower phosphorus limits from a maximum of 0.12% allowed by ILSAC GF-1 to a maximum of 0.10%. In effect, the ILSAC GF-2 phosphorus limit removes 17% of the most commonly used antiwear and antioxidant additive in current PCMOs, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP). This paper outlines some work in ASTM Sequence V engine dynamometer tests to quantify the effect of reducing the ZDP on valve train wear and sludge formation. Engine data for the Sequence VE, the proposed Sequence VF, and the modified Sequence VE are presented. These three tests summarize the evolution of the Sequence V from the Sequence VE for GF-1 to the dual plug Sequence VE configuration for the GF-2 specification.
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