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Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

2001-05-07
2001-01-1967
The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

2007-10-29
2007-01-4107
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

Are the Traditional Methods for Determining Depletion of Total Base Number Providing Adequate Engine Protection?

2007-10-29
2007-01-4001
With the increasing use of modern, EGR-equipped, heavy-duty diesel engines and the use of lower sulfur and alternate fuels, such as biodiesel, lubricants are being exposed to a range of different compositions of acids. To complement the traditional detergent bases, todays lubricants have evolved to include a higher proportion of basic materials from amine-derived sources to aid in oxidation and soot control. This paper explores the impact of the different sources of acids, some of the issues they create and how they can be addressed, exemplified in a prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulation.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

2002-10-21
2002-01-2849
The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

Effects of PuriNOx™ Water-Diesel Fuel Emulsions on Emissions and Fuel Economy in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2891
The engine-out emissions and fuel consumption rates for a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine were compared when fueling with a conventional diesel fuel and three water-blend-fuel emulsions. Four different fuels were studied: (1) a conventional diesel fuel, (2) PuriNOx,™ a water-fuel emulsion using the same conventional diesel fuel, but having 20% water by mass, and (3,4) two other formulations of the PuriNOx™ fuel that contained proprietary chemical additives intended to improve combustion efficiency and emissions characteristics. The emissions data were acquired with three different injection-timing strategies using the AVL 8-Mode steady-state test method in a Caterpillar 3176 engine, which had a calibration that met the 1998 nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions standard.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on the Friction and Emissions of a Light-Duty, 2.2L Direct - Injection - Diesel Engine Part 1 - Engine Test Results

2002-10-21
2002-01-2681
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and engine-out emissions in a light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine were investigated. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity (SAE 5W-20 to 10W-40), friction modifier (FM) level and chemistry (MoDTC and organic FM), and basestock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Tests were run in an engine dynamometer according to a simulated, steady state FTP-75 procedure. Low viscosity oils and high levels of organic FM showed benefits in terms of fuel economy, but there were no significant effects observed with the oils with low MoDTC concentration on engine friction run in this program. No significant oil effects were observed on the gaseous emissions of the engine. PM emissions were analyzed for organic solubles and insolubles. The organic soluble fraction was further analyzed for the oil and fuel soluble portions.
Technical Paper

Reducing Deposits in a DISI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2660
Direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technology offers tremendous potential advantages in fuel savings and is likely to command a progressively increasing share of the European passenger vehicle market in the future. A concern is its propensity to form deposits on the inlet valve. In extreme cases, these deposits can lead to poor drivability and deteriorating emission performance. This inlet valve deposit build up is a well-known phenomenon in DISI engines since even additised fuel cannot wash over the back of intake valves to keep them clean. Two lubricants and two fuels were tested in a four car matrix. One of the lubricants was a fluid specifically developed by Lubrizol for DISI technology; the other was a baseline oil meeting Ford lubricants requirements and was qualified to ACEA A1/B1/ ILSAC GF2 performance level. Similarly, a baseline fuel was tested against an additised system.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Soot Reduction in Diesel and Alternate Fuels using CHEMKIN®

2001-03-05
2001-01-1239
A new gas phase kinetic model using Westbrook's gas phase n-heptane model and Frenklach's soot model was constructed. This model was then used to predict the impact on PAH formation as an indices of soot formation on ethanol/diesel fuel blends. The results were then compared to soot levels measured by various researchers. The ignition delay characteristics of ethanol were validated against experimental results in the literature. In this paper the results of the model and the comparison with experimental results will be discussed along with implications on the method of incorporation of additives and alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Axle Life - Part II

2006-10-16
2006-01-3272
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has increased the impact of these vehicle classes on the manufacturer's CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) numbers. Consumers often use light trucks and SUVs in applications such as prolonged towing at highway speeds, resulting in heavy loading and/or high operating temperatures in the axle. These conditions require superior axle lubricant protection, often provided by choosing a higher viscosity fluid (e.g., SAE 75W-140). Traditionally, the choice of these higher viscosity fluids for enhanced durability performance often results in reduced city-highway efficiency. This paper will describe the use of controlled axle dynamometer laboratory testing methods to develop fluids that maximize both fuel efficiency and durability performance across the wide spectrum of the new proposed viscosity classifications.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3271
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3270
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation rates of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system in order to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper we will describe the development of a break-away friction screening test using a Full-Scale Low-Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). Additionally, we will illustrate how this screening test can be used to investigate the fundamental friction material-lubricant interactions that occur in continuously engaged limited slip differentials.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Derived Chemistries on Performance of the Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-05-11
2005-01-2168
Forthcoming on-highway 2005/2007 European and North American emission regulations will require modern diesel engines to be equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) capable of trapping up to 99% of the exhaust particulate matter. Since diesel particulates (soot) accumulate in the filter over time, the overall system needs to be regenerated by attaining the ignition temperature of soot, which in the presence of oxygen is >600 °C. Catalyzed DPFs regenerate at temperatures as low as ∼300 °C. One of the major issues facing OEMs, aftertreatment system manufacturers, and lubricant formulators is the potential effects of the lubricant-derived ash deposits and their impact on a pressure increase across filters, as well as overall filter performance and its service characteristics.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Vehicle Life

2005-10-24
2005-01-3860
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has challenged the original equipment manufacturers' (OEM) ability to meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) specifications due to the increased contribution of these vehicle classes on fleet averages. The need for improved fuel economy is also a global issue due to the relationship of reduced fuel consumption to reduced CO2 emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are challenged to match the proper fluid with the application to provide the required durability protection while maximizing fuel efficiency. Recent new viscosity classifications outlined under SAE J306 aid in more tightly defining options for lubricant choice for a given application. Changes to the SAE J306 viscosity classification define new intermediate viscosity grades, SAE 110 and SAE 190.
Technical Paper

Soot-Related Viscosity Increase - Further Studies Comparing the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

2005-10-24
2005-01-3714
SAE 2004-01-3009 reported on work conducted to investigate the correlation between the Mack T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests. It concluded that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot-related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits provides a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. This follow-up paper continues the studies on the 2003 Mack CV713 granite dump truck equipped with an AI-427 internal EGR engine and introduces experimentation on a 2003 CX613 tractor unit equipped with an AC-460P cooled EGR engine. The paper further assesses the correlation of the field trials to the Mack T-11 engine test and reviews the impact of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulations in these engines.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

2004-06-08
2004-01-2005
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of the Sequence IIIG by the Study of Oil Consumption

2004-06-08
2004-01-1893
The Sequence IIIG is a newly developed 100 hour test used to evaluate the performance of crankcase engine oils in the areas of high temperature viscosity increase, wear, deposits, pumpability, and ring sticking for the North American GF-4 standard. Data from the ASTM Precision Matrix, completed in the spring of 2003, along with early reference data from the Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) showed unexpected test results for selected oils and indicated that percent viscosity increase and pumpability were highly correlated with oil consumption. This correlation led to an intensive study of the factors that influence oil consumption and an attempt to compensate for non-oil related oil consumption through a model based adjustment of the results. The study and scrutiny of the IIIG data has led to more uniform oil consumption in the test and improved test precision, and has eliminated the need for a correction equation based on non-oil related oil consumption.
Technical Paper

The Use of Life Cycle Assessment with Crankcase Lubricants to Yield Maximum Environmental Benefit – Case Study of Residual Chlorine in Lubricant

2008-10-06
2008-01-2376
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to determine quantitatively the environmental impacts of a range of options. The environmental community has used LCA to study all of the impacts of a product over its life cycle. This analysis can help to prevent instances where a greater degree of environmental harm results when changes are made to products based on consideration of impacts in only part of the life cycle. This study applies the methodology to engine lubricants, and in particular chlorine limits in engine lubricant specifications. Concern that chlorine in lubricants might contribute to emissions from vehicle exhausts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), collectively called PCDD/F, led to the introduction of chlorine limits in lubricant specifications. No direct evidence was available linking chlorine in lubricants to PCDD/F formation, but precautionary principles were used to set lubricant chlorine limits.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Engine Oil Formulations: Antiwear, Friction Modifier, Dispersant Synergy

2002-10-21
2002-01-2767
The next generation of engine oil under development has been formulated to maintain beneficial oil lubrication properties at increased engine operating temperatures, increased drain-oil intervals, and with the recirculation of exhaust gas back through the engine (EGR). These conditions result in the formation of degradation products from decomposed fuel, additives, and base oil. Decomposition products containing reactive sulfur can result in the corrosion of copper alloys. Sulfur-containing compounds currently used in these formulations can include zinc dithiophosphates (ZDP), molydithiophosphates, molydithiocarbamates, and molybdic acid/amine complexes, along with sulfur containing detergents and antioxidants. Interactions among these components and others in the formulation often determine the propensity of these formulations for corrosion. This paper will discuss the results of corrosion bench tests used to screen oil formulations for copper corrosion.
Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-0299
Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
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