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Technical Paper

Exhaust Aftertreatment Research for Heavy Vehicles

2001-05-14
2001-01-2064
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 emission regulations for light-duty vehicles will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. Diesel-powered heavy trucks face a similar situation for the 2007 regulations announced by EPA in December 2000. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and evaluation of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

2001-05-07
2001-01-1967
The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

2007-10-29
2007-01-4107
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Examination of the Effect of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Intake Valve Deposits in Spark-Ignited Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-3995
Ethanol-gasoline blends are widely understood to present certain technical challenges to engine operation. Despite widespread use of fuels ranging from E5 (5% ethanol in gasoline) in some European countries to E10 (10% ethanol) in the United States to E100 (100% ethanol; “alcool”) in Brazil, there are certain subjects which have only anecdotally been examined. This paper examines two such issues: the effect of ethanol on intake valve deposits (IVD) and the impact of fuel additive on filter plugging (a measure of solubility). The effect of ethanol on IVD is studied along two lines of investigation: the effect of E10 in a multi-fuel data set carried out in the BMW 318i used for EPA and CARB certification, and the effect of varying ethanol content from 0% to 85% in gasoline carried out in a modern flex-fuel vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Advanced Ceramic Material for Diesel Particulate Filter Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1124
This paper describes the application of pore-scale filtration simulations to the advanced ceramic material (ACM) developed for use in advanced diesel particulate filters. The application required the generation of a three-dimensional substrate geometry to provide the boundary conditions for the flow model. An innovative stochastic modeling technique was applied matching chord length distribution and the porosity profile of the material. Additional experimental validation was provided by the single-channel experimental apparatus. Results show that the stochastic reconstruction techniques provide flexibility and appropriate accuracy for the modeling efforts. Early investigation efforts imply that needle length may provide a mechanism for adjusting performance of the ACM for diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. New techniques have been developed to visualize soot deposition in both traditional and new DPF substrate materials.
Technical Paper

Visualization Techniques for Single Channel DPF Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1126
New techniques have been developed to visualize soot deposition in both traditional and new diesel particulate filter (DPF) substrate materials using a modified cyanoacrylate fuming technique. Loading experiments have been conducted on a variety of single channel DPF substrates to develop a deeper understanding of soot penetration, soot deposition characteristics, and to confirm modeling results. Early results indicate that stabilizing the soot layer using a vaporized adhesive (Cynoacrylate) may allow analysis of the layer with new methods.
Technical Paper

Are the Traditional Methods for Determining Depletion of Total Base Number Providing Adequate Engine Protection?

2007-10-29
2007-01-4001
With the increasing use of modern, EGR-equipped, heavy-duty diesel engines and the use of lower sulfur and alternate fuels, such as biodiesel, lubricants are being exposed to a range of different compositions of acids. To complement the traditional detergent bases, todays lubricants have evolved to include a higher proportion of basic materials from amine-derived sources to aid in oxidation and soot control. This paper explores the impact of the different sources of acids, some of the issues they create and how they can be addressed, exemplified in a prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulation.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

2002-10-21
2002-01-2849
The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effects of Additives on Spark Ignited Combustion in a Laminar Flow System and in an Engine Under Cold-Start Conditions

2002-10-21
2002-01-2834
Experiments have been conducted in a laminar flow system and in a research engine to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of the laminar system is to enable rapid screening of additives to determine which, if any, have an enhancing effect on the early stages of combustion, especially under conditions of poor fuel vaporization which exist during cold-start in a spark ignited engine and which make flame propagation difficult to start and sustain. The base fuel used in the laminar and engine systems was a 9 component mixture formulated to simulate those components of gasoline expected to be present in the vapor phase in the intake system of an engine under cold-start conditions. In the laminar system, the pre-mixed, pre-vaporized fuel-air mixture is ignited and a time history of the combustion generated, hydroxyl radical chemiluminescence is recorded.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

Effects of PuriNOx™ Water-Diesel Fuel Emulsions on Emissions and Fuel Economy in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2891
The engine-out emissions and fuel consumption rates for a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine were compared when fueling with a conventional diesel fuel and three water-blend-fuel emulsions. Four different fuels were studied: (1) a conventional diesel fuel, (2) PuriNOx,™ a water-fuel emulsion using the same conventional diesel fuel, but having 20% water by mass, and (3,4) two other formulations of the PuriNOx™ fuel that contained proprietary chemical additives intended to improve combustion efficiency and emissions characteristics. The emissions data were acquired with three different injection-timing strategies using the AVL 8-Mode steady-state test method in a Caterpillar 3176 engine, which had a calibration that met the 1998 nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions standard.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

2002-10-21
2002-01-2889
Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Selective Reduction of NOx in Oxygen Rich Environments with Plasma-Assisted Catalysis: The Role of Plasma and Reactive Intermediates

2001-09-24
2001-01-3513
The catalytic activity of selected materials (BaY and NaY zeolites, and γ-alumina) for selective NOx reduction in combination with a non-thermal plasma was investigated. Our studies suggest that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, all materials that are active in plasma-assisted catalysis were found to be very effective for the thermal reduction of NOx in the presence of aldehydes. For example, the thermal catalytic activity of a BaY zeolite with aldehydes gives 80-90% NOx removal at 250°C with 200ppm NOx at the inlet and a VHSV=12,000 h-1. The hydrocarbon reductants, n-octane and 1-propyl alcohol, have also shown high thermal catalytic activity for NOx removal over BaY, NaY and γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Cascade Processing of NOx by Two-Step Discharge/Catalyst Reactors

2001-09-24
2001-01-3509
We present here a phenomenological analysis of a cascade of two-step discharge-catalyst reactors. That is, each step of the cascade consists of a discharge reactor in series with a catalyst bed. These reactors are intended for use in the reduction of tailpipe emission of NOx from diesel engines. The discharge oxidizes NO to NO2, and partially oxidizes HC. The NO2 then reacts on the catalyst bed with hydrocarbons and partially oxidized HCs and is reduced to N2. The cascade may be essential because the best catalysts for this purpose that we have also convert significant fractions of the NO2 back to NO. As we show, reprocessing the gas may not only be necessary, but may also result in energy savings and increased device reliability.
Technical Paper

Multi-Step Discharge/Catalyst Processing of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3510
In the discharge-catalyst treatment of diesel exhaust the discharge chemistry is known to oxidize NO to NO2 as well as to produce partially oxidized hydrocarbons for the heterogeneous reduction step. We find NO2 to be much more easily reduced to N2 on our catalysts, as long as there is a sufficient supply of reductant present. Unfortunately we typically find that a fraction of the NO2 is only partially reduced back to NO. Since much of the original hydrocarbon survives both the plasma and our catalyst, a subsequent stage of plasma will oxidize NO back to NO2 while at the same time replenishing the supply of partially oxidized hydrocarbon for another stage of heterogeneous catalysis. We present experimental evidence illustrating the advantages of multi-step discharge-catalyst treatment of NOx in simulated diesel exhaust.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Facilitated SCR of NOx in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3570
This paper describes two independent studies on γ-alumina as a plasma-activated catalyst. γ-alumina (2.5 - 4.3 wt%) was coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica to determine the importance of aluminum surface coordination on NOx conversion in conjunction with nonthermal plasma. Results indicate that the presence of 5- and 6- fold aluminum coordination sites in γ-alumina could be a significant factor in the NOx reduction process. A second study examined the effect of changing the reducing agent on NOx conversion. Several hydrocarbons were examined including propene, propane, isooctane, methanol, and acetaldehyde. It is demonstrated that methanol was the most effective reducing agent of those tested for a plasma-facilitated reaction over γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3569
The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Soot Reduction in Diesel and Alternate Fuels using CHEMKIN®

2001-03-05
2001-01-1239
A new gas phase kinetic model using Westbrook's gas phase n-heptane model and Frenklach's soot model was constructed. This model was then used to predict the impact on PAH formation as an indices of soot formation on ethanol/diesel fuel blends. The results were then compared to soot levels measured by various researchers. The ignition delay characteristics of ethanol were validated against experimental results in the literature. In this paper the results of the model and the comparison with experimental results will be discussed along with implications on the method of incorporation of additives and alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

Development of a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Electrical Model for Optimum NOx Removal Performance

2000-10-16
2000-01-2893
A double dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by an alternating voltage is a relatively simple approach to promote oxidation of NO to NO2 for subsequent reduction in a catalyst bed. The chemical performance of such a non-thermal plasma reactor is determined by its current and electric field behavior in the gap, and by the fraction of the current carried by electrons, because the key reactants which initiate the NO oxidation and accompanying chemical changes are produced there, mostly by electron impact. We have tried to determine by models and experiments the bounds on performance of double dielectric barrier reactors and guidelines for optimization. Models reported here predict chemical results from time-resolved applied voltage and series sense capacitor data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Plasma-Catalyst and Lean NOx Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction

2000-10-16
2000-01-2895
Projected NOx and fuel costs are compared for a plasma-catalyst system and an active lean NOx catalyst system. Comparisons are based on modeling of FTP cycle performance. The model uses steady state laboratory device characteristics, combined with measured vehicle exhaust data to predict NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalties. The plasma system uses a proprietary catalyst downstream of a plasma discharge. The active lean NOx catalyst uses a catalyst along with addition of hydrocarbons to the exhaust. For the plasma catalyst system, NOx conversion is available over a wide temperature range. Increased electrical power improves conversion but degrades vehicle fuel economy; 10 J/L energy deposition costs roughly 3% fuel economy. Improved efficiency is also available with larger catalyst size or increased exhaust hydrocarbon content. For the active lean NOx system, NOx conversion is available only in a narrow temperature range.
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