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Technical Paper

Current Developments in Diesel Engine Oil Technology

1978-02-01
780182
Multifunctional or universal lubricating oils which service both gasoline and diesel engines have gained widespread commercial acceptance. Since 1970, numerous changes and additions have altered the performance tests and specifications which define the quality of these lubricants. New parameters include single cylinder and multicylinder diesel engine testing, valve train wear protection, clutch plate friction retention, extended drain interval and lubricant related fuel economy. In response to these requirements, new additive systems were developed. This paper discusses observed base oil-additive-engine test interactions and compares the performance of one of these additive systems to that of the old.
Technical Paper

Field Experience with Selected Lubricants for Commercial Vehicle Manual Transmissions

2005-05-11
2005-01-2176
Laboratory testing is an essential part of product development. However, it usually only reflects a small portion of the experience that a lubricant may see in actual service conditions. Many laboratory tests are designed to only address one or two facets of what is deemed to be critical performance areas. Since it is difficult to cover all of the critical performance conditions problems sometimes arise in service that were not anticipated by the laboratory test. Or, conversely, some above average performance evolves during service that was not observed in a specific laboratory test. This paper highlights the overall performance of four manual transmission fluids approved or accepted by the manufacturer for this application. The evaluations were conducted in a city bus fleet with the test buses assigned to the same route for approximately 300,000 km over 30 months.
Technical Paper

The Development of Predictive Models for Non-Acidic Lubricity Agents (NALA) using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR)

2005-10-24
2005-01-3900
This study describes the use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) to develop predictive models for non-acidic Lubricity agents. The work demonstrates the importance of separating certain chemical families to give better and more robust equations rather than grouping a whole data set together. These models can then be used as important tools in further development work by predicting activities of new compounds before actual synthesis/testing.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1581
Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

2007-04-16
2007-01-0421
Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

Representation of Constrained/Unconstrained Layer Damping Treatments in FEA/SEA Vehicle System Models: A Simplified Approach

1999-05-17
1999-01-1680
In this study, a simplified approach to modeling the dynamics of damping treatments in FEA (Finite Element)/ SEA (Statistical Energy) models is presented. The basic idea is to represent multi-layered composite structures with an equivalent layer. The properties of the equivalent layer are obtained by using the RKU (Ross, Kerwin and Ungar) method. The procedure presented here does not require any special pre-processing of the finite element input file and it does not increase the number of active degrees of freedom in the model, thereby making it possible to include the effect of these treatments in large system/subsystem level models. The equivalent properties obtained from RKU analysis can also be used in the SEA system models. In this study, both unconstrained and constrained layer damping treatments applied to simple structures (e.g., flat panels) as well as production vehicle components are examined.
Technical Paper

Testing Elastomers - Can Correlation Be Achieved Between Machines, Load Cells, Fixtures and Operators?

2001-04-30
2001-01-1443
At present, testing elastomeric parts is performed at a level dictated by the users of the testing equipment. No society or testing group has defined a formal standard of testing or a way to calibrate a testing machine. This is in part due to the difficulty involved with testing a material whose properties are in a constant state of flux. To further complicate this issue, testing equipment, testing procedures, fixtures, and a host of other variables including the operators themselves, all can have an impact on the characterization of elastomers. The work presented in this paper looks at identifying some of the variables of testing between machines, load cells, fixtures and operators. It also shows that correlation can be achieved and should be performed between companies to ensure data integrity.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1698
Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Engine Oil Formulations: Antiwear, Friction Modifier, Dispersant Synergy

2002-10-21
2002-01-2767
The next generation of engine oil under development has been formulated to maintain beneficial oil lubrication properties at increased engine operating temperatures, increased drain-oil intervals, and with the recirculation of exhaust gas back through the engine (EGR). These conditions result in the formation of degradation products from decomposed fuel, additives, and base oil. Decomposition products containing reactive sulfur can result in the corrosion of copper alloys. Sulfur-containing compounds currently used in these formulations can include zinc dithiophosphates (ZDP), molydithiophosphates, molydithiocarbamates, and molybdic acid/amine complexes, along with sulfur containing detergents and antioxidants. Interactions among these components and others in the formulation often determine the propensity of these formulations for corrosion. This paper will discuss the results of corrosion bench tests used to screen oil formulations for copper corrosion.
Technical Paper

USCAR Traction Test Methodology for Traction-CVT Fluids

2002-10-21
2002-01-2820
A traction test machine, developed for evaluation of traction-CVT fluids for the automotive consortium, USCAR, provides precision traction measurements to stresses up to 4 GPa. The high stress machine, WAMhs, provides an elliptical contact between AISI 52100 steel roller and disc specimens. Machine stiffness and positioning technology offer precision control of linear slip, sideslip and spin. A USCAR traction test methodology includes entrainment velocities from 2 to 10 m/sec and temperatures from -20°C to 140°C. The purpose of the USCAR machine and test methodology is to encourage traction fluid development and to establish a common testing approach for fluid qualification. The machine utilizes custom software, which provides flexibility to conduct comprehensive traction fluid evaluations.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of a Catalytic Converter with Material and Manufacturing Variations

2002-10-21
2002-01-2888
A design is robust when the performance targets have been achieved and the effects of variation have been minimized without eliminating the causes of the variation such as manufacturing tolerances, material properties, environmental temperature, humidity, operational wear etc. In recent years several robust design concepts have been introduced in an effort to obtain optimum designs and minimize the variation in the product characteristics [1,2]. In this study, a probabilistic design analysis was performed on a catalytic converter substrate in order to determine the required manufacturing tolerance that results in a robust design. Variation in circularity (roundness) and the ultimate shear stress of the substrate material were considered. The required manufacturing tolerance for a robust design with 1,2 and 3 sigma quality levels was determined. The same manufacturing tolerance for a reliability based design with reliability levels of 85%, 90% and 95% was also determined and compared.
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Insertion Loss of Sound Package Components

2003-05-05
2003-01-1549
Typical automotive sound package components are usually characterized by their absorption coefficients and their acoustic power-based insertion loss. This insertion loss (IL) is usually obtained by subtracting the transmission loss (TL) of a bare flat steel plate from the TL of the same plate covered with the trim material. While providing useful information regarding the performance of the component, air-borne insertion loss is based solely on acoustic excitations and thus provides very little information about the structure-borne performance of the component. This paper presents an attempt to introduce a standard procedure to define the power-based structure-borne insertion loss of sound package components. A flat steel plate is excited mechanically using a shaker. Different carpet constructions are applied on the plate and tested. Based on velocity measurements, a force transducer and intensity probe, the mechanical input and the acoustic radiated power are obtained.
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0689
Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

The Role of Engine Oil Formulations on Fluid Diagnostics

2002-10-21
2002-01-2677
Historically, vehicle fluid condition has been monitored by measuring miles driven or hours operated. Many current vehicles have more sophisticated monitoring methods that use additional variables such as fuel consumption, engine temperature and engine revolutions to predict fluid condition. None of these monitoring means, however, actually measures a fluid property to determine condition, and that is about to change. New sensors and diagnostic systems are being developed that allow real time measurement of some lubricant physical and/or chemical properties and interpret the results in order to recommend oil change intervals and maximize performance. Many of these new sensors use electrochemical or acoustic wave technologies. This paper examines the use of these two technologies to determine engine oil condition and focuses on the effects of lubricant chemistry on interpreting the results.
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