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Technical Paper

Characterization of Vehicle Occupant Compartment Material Properties Using MADYMO: Methodology and Validation

2009-06-09
2009-01-2260
During a motor-vehicle collision, an occupant may interact with a variety of interior structures. The material properties and construction of these structures can directly affect the occupant's kinetic response. Simulation tools such as MADYMO (Mathematical Dynamical Models) can be used to estimate the forces imparted to an occupant for injury mechanism and causation evaluation relative to a particular event. Depending on the impact event and the specific injury mechanism being evaluated, the selection of proper material characteristics can be quite important. A comprehensive literature review of MADYMO studies illustrates the prevalent use of generic material characteristics and the need for improved property estimation and implementation methods.
Technical Paper

Design and Conduct of Precision Planetary Gear Vibration Experiments

2009-05-19
2009-01-2071
Despite a large body of analytical work characterizing the dynamic motion of planetary gears, supporting experimental data is limited. Experimental results are needed to support computer modeling and offer practical optimization guidelines to gear designers. This paper presents the design and implementation of a test facility and precision test fixtures for accurate measurement of planetary gear vibration at operating conditions. Acceleration measurements are made on all planetary bodies under controlled torque/speed conditions. Custom, high-precision test fixtures accommodate instrumentation, ensure accurate alignment, help isolate gear dynamics, and allow for variability in future testing. Results are compared with finite element and lumped parameter models.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-1072
This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Elevator Door Retention During Hallway Applied Lateral Loads

2009-06-09
2009-01-2273
Most do not consider there to be a risk in pushing on, bumping into or falling against an elevator door from the hallway side. However, the lack of the elevator cars presence alone, and the potential for severe injury or even death make this seemingly mundane situation potentially critical. Standards exist relative to such situations, and past and current designs attempt to account for this possibility, still people get injured interacting with these doors every year. In order to evaluate a real-world elevator door system's ability to withstand the quasi-static and impactive loads that can be placed on it by the general public during its life, both intentionally and unintentionally, a predictive tool is needed. This work represents the combination of empirical laboratory testing and numerical modeling of a typical elevator door system exposed to quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Journal Article

Vibration Analysis of Powertrain Mounting System with a Combination of Active and Passive Isolators with Spectrally-varying Properties

2009-05-19
2009-01-2034
Most of the prior work on active mounting systems has been conducted in the context of a single degree-of-freedom even though the vehicle powertrain is a six degree-of-freedom isolation system. We seek to overcome this deficiency by proposing a new six degree-of-freedom analytical model of the powertrain system with a combination of active and passive mounts. All stiffness and damping elements contain spectrally-varying properties and we examine powertrain motions when excited by an oscillating torque. Two methods are developed that describe the mount elements via a transfer function (in Laplace domain). New analytical formulations are verified by comparing the frequency responses with numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method (based on Voigt type mount model). Eigensolutions of a spectrally varying mounting system are also predicted by new models.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2048
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Consumer Braking Performance Information Initiative

1999-03-01
1999-01-1291
A test procedure that rates brake performance must control variability so that measured differences between vehicles are real. Tests were conducted using standard brake test procedures with three drivers in three cars on wet and dry asphalt with the ABS working and disabled. The differences between vehicles were greater than differences due to ABS condition, surface condition, and drivers. The procedure measured differences between all the vehicles with statistical certainty but used many replications and drivers. If only large differences in performance need to be distinguished, fewer replications and drivers will be needed.
Technical Paper

Motor Resolver Fault Diagnosis for AWD EV based on Structural Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1354
Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are getting more attention in the automotive industry with the technology improvement and increasing focus on fuel economy. For EVs and HEVs, especially all-wheel drive (AWD) EVs with two electric motors powering front and rear axles separately, an accurate motor speed measurement through resolver is significant for vehicle performance and drivability requirement, subject to resolver faults including amplitude imbalance, quadrature imperfection and reference phase shift. This paper proposes a diagnostic scheme for the specific type of resolver fault, amplitude imbalance, in AWD EVs. Based on structural analysis, the vehicle structure is analyzed considering the vehicle architecture and the sensor setup. Different vehicle drive scenarios are studied for designing diagnostic decision logic. The residuals are designed in accordance with the results of structural analysis and the diagnostic decision logic.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis Based Sensor Placement for Diagnosis of Clutch Faults in Automatic Transmissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1357
This paper describes a systematic approach to identify the best sensor combination by performing sensor placement analysis to detect and isolate clutch stuck-off faults in Automatic Transmissions (AT) based on structural analysis. When an engaged clutch in the AT loses pressure during operation, it is classified as a clutch stuck-off fault. AT can enter in neutral state because of these faults; causing loss of power at wheels. Identifying the sensors to detect and isolate these faults is important in the early stage of the AT development. A universal approach to develop a structural model of an AT is presented based on the kinematic relationships of the planetary gear set elements. Sensor placement analysis is then performed to determine the sensor locations to detect and isolate the clutch stuck-off faults using speed sensors and clutch pressure sensors. The proposed approach is then applied to a 10-Speed AT to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Testing and Validation of a Belted Alternator System for a Post-Transmission Parallel PHEV for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2017-03-28
2017-01-1263
The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The belted alternator starter (BAS) which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

2018-04-03
2018-01-0630
Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analysis Program to Predict Efficiency of Automotive Power Transmission and Its Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0398
Prediction of power efficiency of gear boxes has become an increasingly important research topic since fuel economy requirements for passenger vehicles are more stringent, due to not only fuel cost but also environmental regulations. Under this circumstance, the automotive industry is dedicatedly focusing on developing a highly efficient gear box. Thus, the analysis of power efficiency of gear box should be performed to have a transmission that is highly efficient as much as possible at the beginning of design stage. In this study, a program is developed to analyze the efficiency of an entire gearbox, considering all components’ losses such as gear mesh, wet clutches, bearings, oil pump and so on. The analytical models are based on the formulations of each component power loss model which has been developed and published in many existing papers. The program includes power flow analysis of both a parallel gear-train and a planetary gear-train.
Technical Paper

Use of Robust DOB/CDOB Compensation to Improve Autonomous Vehicle Path Following Performance in the Presence of Model Uncertainty, CAN Bus Delays and External Disturbances

2018-04-03
2018-01-1086
Autonomous vehicle technology has been developing rapidly in recent years. Vehicle parametric uncertainty in the vehicle model, variable time delays in the CAN bus based sensor and actuator command interfaces, changes in vehicle sped, sensitivity to external disturbances like side wind and changes in road friction coefficient are factors that affect autonomous driving systems like they have affected ADAS and active safety systems in the past. This paper presents a robust control architecture for automated driving systems for handling the abovementioned problems. A path tracking control system is chosen as the proof-of-concept demonstration application in this paper. A disturbance observer (DOB) is embedded within the steering to path error automated driving loop to handle uncertain parameters such as vehicle mass, vehicle velocities and road friction coefficient and to reject yaw moment disturbances.
Technical Paper

Localization and Perception for Control and Decision Making of a Low Speed Autonomous Shuttle in a Campus Pilot Deployment

2018-04-03
2018-01-1182
Future SAE Level 4 and Level 5 autonomous vehicles will require novel applications of localization, perception, control and artificial intelligence technology in order to offer innovative and disruptive solutions to current mobility problems. This paper concentrates on low speed autonomous shuttles that are transitioning from being tested in limited traffic, dedicated routes to being deployed as SAE Level 4 automated driving vehicles in urban environments like college campuses and outdoor shopping centers within smart cities. The Ohio State University has designated a small segment in an underserved area of campus as an initial autonomous vehicle (AV) pilot test route for the deployment of low speed autonomous shuttles. This paper presents initial results of ongoing work on developing solutions to the localization and perception challenges of this planned pilot deployment.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Validation of New Analytical Planar Models for Simulating Multi-Axle Articulated Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1784
This paper discusses the derivation and validation of planar models of articulated vehicles that were developed to analyze jackknife stability on low-μ surfaces. The equations of motion are rigorously derived using Lagrange's method, then linearized for use in state-space models. The models are verified using TruckSim™, a popular nonlinear solid body vehicle dynamics modeling package. The TruckSim™ models were previously verified using extensive on-vehicle experimental data [1, 2]. A three-axle articulated model is expanded to contain five axles to avoid lumping the parameters for the drive and semitrailer tandems. Compromises inherent in using the linearized models are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a nonlinear tire cornering force model is coupled with the 5-axle model, and its ability to simulate a jackknife event is demonstrated. The model is shown to be valid over a wide range of inputs, up to and including loss of control, on low-and-medium-μ surfaces.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

2004-03-08
2004-01-1741
This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Full Vehicle Model for Structure Borne Road Noise Prediction

2005-05-16
2005-01-2467
As vehicle development timelines continue to shorten, it is necessary for the full vehicle NVH engineer to be able to predict performance without actual prototypes. There has been significant advancement in the accuracy of finite element modeling techniques of trimmed bodies; however accuracy is still low in the road noise mid frequency range from 150-400Hz. Also, calculation times for these frequencies are long, with very large results files in some cases. To alleviate these limitations, a Hybrid approach has been used, where a finite element suspension and drive train model is coupled with a test based Frequency Response Function (FRF) model of the trimmed body. The predicted road noise level was compared to actual vehicle tests and exhibited excellent correlation.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Exhaust Silencing System for a Production Engine

2005-05-16
2005-01-2349
A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Sensorless Estimation for Single Spring Solenoids

2006-04-03
2006-01-1678
This paper presents an empirical dynamic model of a single spring electromagnetic solenoid actuator system, including bounce, temperature effects and coil leakage inductance. The model neglects hysteresis and saturation, the aim being to compensate for these uncertainties through estimator robustness. The model is validated for all regions of operation and there is a good agreement between model and experimental data. A nonlinear (sliding mode) estimator is developed to estimate position and speed from current measurements. Since the estimator makes use of only current measurement it is given the name sensorless. The estimator is validated in simulation and experimentally. The novelty in this paper lies in the fact that accurate state estimation can be realized on a simple linear model using a robust observer theory. Also, the formulations for leakage inductance and coil temperature are unique.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling of Tire Forces on a Low Coefficient Surface

2006-04-03
2006-01-0559
There exists a fairly extensive set of tire force measurements performed on dry pavement. But in order to develop a low-coefficient of friction tire model, a set of tire force measurements made on wet pavement is required. Using formulations and parameters obtained on dry roads, and then reducing friction level to that of a wet road is not sufficient to model tire forces in a high fidelity simulation. This paper describes the process of more accurately modeling low coefficient tire forces on the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). It is believed that the tire model improvements will be useful in many types of NADS simulations, including ESC and other advanced vehicle technology studies. In order to produce results that would come from a road surface that would be sufficiently slippery, a set of tires were shaved to 4/32 inches and sent to a tire-testing lab for measurement.
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