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Technical Paper

Characterization of Vehicle Occupant Compartment Material Properties Using MADYMO: Methodology and Validation

During a motor-vehicle collision, an occupant may interact with a variety of interior structures. The material properties and construction of these structures can directly affect the occupant's kinetic response. Simulation tools such as MADYMO (Mathematical Dynamical Models) can be used to estimate the forces imparted to an occupant for injury mechanism and causation evaluation relative to a particular event. Depending on the impact event and the specific injury mechanism being evaluated, the selection of proper material characteristics can be quite important. A comprehensive literature review of MADYMO studies illustrates the prevalent use of generic material characteristics and the need for improved property estimation and implementation methods.
Technical Paper

Miniaturized Sensor Systems for Early Fire Detection in Spacecraft

A fire in spacecraft or habitat supporting NASA's Exploration mission could jeopardize the system, mission, and/or crew. Given adequate measures for fire prevention, the hazard from a fire can be significantly reduced if fire detection is rapid and occurs in the early stages of fire development. The simultaneous detection of both particulate and gaseous products has been proven to rapidly detect fires and accurately distinguish between real fires and nuisance sources. This paper describes the development status of gaseous and particulate sensor elements, integrated sensor systems, and system testing. It is concluded that while development is still necessary, the fundamental approach of smart, miniaturized, multisensor technology has the potential to significantly improve the safety of NASA space exploration systems.
Technical Paper

Suspension Parameter Measurement Using Side-Pull Test To Enhance Modeling of Vehicle Roll

This paper describes a new laboratory test facility for measuring suspension parameters that affect rollover. The Side-Pull mechanism rolls the test vehicle through a cable attached rigidly at its center of gravity (CG). Changes in wheel camber and wheel steer angles are measured as a function of body roll angle. The roll test simulates a steady-state cornering. Thus, both compliance and kinematic forces are fed simultaneously to the vehicle as they would be applied in a real cornering situation. The lateral load transfer, and roll angle as a function of simulated lateral acceleration is determined. The Side-Pull Roll Measurement has advantages over the conventional roll tests where the rolling force couple is applied vertically. The Side-Pull mechanism rolls the vehicle in a unrestricted way with horizontal forces applied at the tire / pad contact and the CG location. Thus, the measurements take into account coupling of compliance with roll.
Technical Paper

Use of Robust DOB/CDOB Compensation to Improve Autonomous Vehicle Path Following Performance in the Presence of Model Uncertainty, CAN Bus Delays and External Disturbances

Autonomous vehicle technology has been developing rapidly in recent years. Vehicle parametric uncertainty in the vehicle model, variable time delays in the CAN bus based sensor and actuator command interfaces, changes in vehicle sped, sensitivity to external disturbances like side wind and changes in road friction coefficient are factors that affect autonomous driving systems like they have affected ADAS and active safety systems in the past. This paper presents a robust control architecture for automated driving systems for handling the abovementioned problems. A path tracking control system is chosen as the proof-of-concept demonstration application in this paper. A disturbance observer (DOB) is embedded within the steering to path error automated driving loop to handle uncertain parameters such as vehicle mass, vehicle velocities and road friction coefficient and to reject yaw moment disturbances.
Technical Paper

Predicting Aircraft Performance Degradation Due to Ice Accretion

An analytical method to predict the performance degradation of aircraft with ice accretion is presented. Early research on airfoil icing and the effects of ice on aircraft are reviewed. Data on the performance degradation of airfoils due to ice are presented as they apply to the aircraft performance analysis. A computer code has been written and results are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

Application of Anthropomorphic Test Device Crash Test Kinetics to Post Mortem Human Subject Lower Extremity Testing

The primary goal of the current study was to determine ATD lower extremity loading characteristics seen in frontal crash tests and apply these characteristics to isolated PMHS lower extremity impacts. Essentially, the study attempted to re-create the kinetics experienced by the Hybrid III 50th percentile ATD (HIII) in frontal crash tests and apply this crash test loading scenario directly to PMHS specimens efficiently and while maximizing the utilization of a small number of cadaver subjects. The secondary goal of this study was to determine the relationship between PMHS and HIII lower extremity impact response. Based on this comparison, it was anticipated that PMHS posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury threshold and timing could be related to knee shear in the HIII ball-bearing knee slider mechanism. HIII lower extremity loading was analyzed from a series of twenty-eight (28) frontal barrier or vehicle to vehicle crash tests from late model vehicles.
Technical Paper

MADYMO Modeling of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

The International Harmonization Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Working Group (IHRA PSWG) has proposed design requirements for two head-forms for vehicle hood (bonnet) impact testing. This paper discusses the development of MADYMO models representing the IHRA adult and child head-forms, validation of the models against laboratory drop tests, and assessment of the effect of IHRA geometric and mass constraints on the model response by conducting a parameter sensitivity analysis. The models consist of a multibody rigid sphere covered with a finite element modeled vinyl skin. The most important part in developing the MADYMO head-form models was to experimentally determine the material properties of the energy-absorbing portion of the head-form (vinyl skin) and incorporate these properties into MADYMO using a suitable material model. Three material models (linear isotropic, viscoelastic, hyperelastic) were examined.
Technical Paper

The Application of Piezoceramic Actuation to Direct Fuel Injection

With increasing demands to reduce emissions from internal combustion engines, engine manufacturers are forced to seek out new technology. One such technology employed primarily in the diesel and two-stroke engine community is direct-injection (DI). Direct injection has shown promising results in reduction of CO and NOx for both two- and four-stroke engines. While having been used for several years in the diesel industry, direct injection has been scrutinized for an inability to meet future requirements to reduce particulate matter emissions. Direct injection has also came under fire for complicating fuel delivery systems, thus making it cost prohibitive for small utility engine manufacturers. Recent research shows that the application of piezo-driven actuators has a positive effect on soot formation reduction for diesel engines and as this paper will distinguish, has the ability to simplify direct injection fuel delivery systems in general.
Technical Paper

Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety

Aircraft incidents and accidents in icing are often the result of degradation in performance and control. However, current ice sensors measure the amount of ice and not the effect on performance and control. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot. In this paper research is reported on a system to estimate aircraft performance and control changes due to ice, then use this information to automatically operate ice protection systems, provide aircraft envelope protection and, if icing is severe, adapt the flight controls. Key to such a safety system would be he proper communication to, and coordination with, the flight crew. This paper reviews the basic system concept, as well as the research conducted in three critical areas; aerodynamics and flight mechanics, aircraft control and identification, and human factors.
Technical Paper

Sound Radiation from a Disk Brake Rotor Using a Semi-Analytical Method

Modal sound radiation of a brake rotor is expressed in terms of analytical solutions of a generic thick annular disk having similar geometric dimensions. Finite element method is used to determine structural modes and response. Vibro-acoustic responses such as surface velocities and radiated sound pressures due to a multi-modal excitation are calculated from synthesized structural modes and modal acoustic radiation of the rotor using the modal expansion technique. In addition, acoustic power and radiation efficiency spectra corresponding to a specific force excitation are obtained from the sound pressure data. Accuracy of the new semi-analytical method has been confirmed by purely numerical analyses based on finite element and boundary element models. Our method should lead to an improved understanding of the sound radiation from a brake rotor and strategies to minimize squeal noise radiation could be formulated.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Shaft Dynamic Effects on Gear Vibration and Noise Excitations

Transmission error has long been identified to be the main exciter of gear whine noise. This research effort seeks to investigate the mechanisms and principal controlling factors that affect the actual noise generation from a typical gearbox housing due to transmission error excitations. The insight gained is expected to help in identifying possible noise control procedures in typical gearing applications. The example gearbox of this paper is an aircraft auxiliary-drive idler gearbox run at low load so that transmission error is the primary mesh excitation. A limited set of dynamic noise and vibration data are collected in transient speed run-ups. A contact-mechanics gear-tooth model is used to predict the static transmission error at each mesh. A finite-element model of the shafting that incorporates complex shaft and bearing data is used to predict the shaft dynamics with the static transmission error at the gear mesh(es) as the sole excitation.
Technical Paper

Structure-Borne Noise Measures and Their Correlation to Sound Radiation over a Broad Range of Frequencies

Structure-borne noise within vehicle structures is often transmitted in a multi-dimensional manner and thus the vibro-acoustic model(s) of automotive powertrain or chassis must incorporate longitudinal and transverse (flexural) motions as well as their couplings. In this article, we employ the continuous system theory to model a typical vibration isolator (say the engine mounting system) and a compliant receiver that could simulate the body structure. The powertrain source is however assumed to be rigid, and both harmonic force and moment excitations are considered. Our analysis is limited to a linear time-invariant system, and the frequency domain based mobility method is utilized to synthesize the overall system. Contributions of both in-plane and flexural motions to structure-borne and radiated noise are incorporated. Two examples are considered to illustrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Approximating Engine Tailpipe Orifice Noise Sound Quality using a Surge Tank and In-Duct Measurements

Because of the need to safely vent exhaust gases, most engine dynamometer facilities are not well suited to measuring engine exhaust orifice noise. Depending on the location of the dyno facility within the building, the exhaust system may need to be extended in order to properly vent the exhaust fumes. This additional ducting changes the acoustic modes of the exhaust system which will change the measured orifice noise. Duct additions downstream of the original orifice location also alter the termination impedance such that in-duct pressure measurements with and without the extended exhaust system can vary significantly. In order to minimize the effect of the building's exhaust system on the desired engine exhaust system measurements, the present approach terminates the engine exhaust into a large enclosed volume or surge tank before venting the gases into the building's ventilation system.
Technical Paper

Response of the 6-Month-Old CRABI in Forward Facing and Rear Facing Child Restraints to a Simulated Real World Impact

It is commonly recommended to use infant/child restraints in the rear seat, and that until an infant reaches certain age, weight and height criteria, the infant restraint should be placed rear facing. This paper will describe the injuries suffered by an infant that was restrained in a forward-facing child seat placed in the front passenger seating position during a real world collision. Based on this collision, a full-scale vehicle to barrier impact test was performed. For this test, two 6-month-old CRABI dummies were used in identical child restraints. One of the restraints was placed in the front passenger seat in a forward facing configuration, and the other was placed in the right rear seating position in a rear-facing configuration. This paper provides a detailed discussion of the results of this test, including comparisons of the specific kinematics for both the restraint/child dummy configurations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Characterization Through Pole Impact Testing, Part II: Analysis of Center and Offset Center Impacts

The severity of an impact in terms of the acceleration in the occupant compartment is dependent not only on the change in vehicle velocity, but also the time for the change in velocity to occur. These depend on the geometry and stiffness of both the striking vehicle and struck object. In narrow-object frontal impacts, impact location can affect the shape and duration of the acceleration pulse that reaches the occupant compartment. In this paper, the frontal impact response of a full-sized pickup to 10 mile per hour and 20 mile per hour pole impacts at the centerline and at a location nearer the frame rails is compared using the acceleration pulse shape, the average acceleration in the occupant compartment, and the residual crush. A bilinear curve relating impact speed to residual crush is developed.
Technical Paper

Two-Zone Heat Release Analysis of Combustion Data and Calibration of Heat Transfer Correlation in an I. C. Engine

Typically, the combustion analysis for S.I. engines is limited to the determination of the apparent heat release from in-cylinder pressure measurements, effectively using a single zone approach with constant properties determined at some average temperature. In this paper, we follow an approach consistent with the engine modeling approach (i.e., reverse modeling) to extract heat release rate from combustion pressure data. The experimental data used here solely consists of quantities measured in a typical engine dynamometer tests, namely the crank-angle resolved cylinder pressure, as well as global measurements of the A/F ratio, engine speed, load, EGR, air mass flow rate and temperature and exhaust emissions. We then perform a two-zone, crank-angle resolved analysis of the pressure data using variable composition and properties.
Technical Paper

Study of the Flow Field Development During the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine Using 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV

The evolution of the flow field inside an IC engine during the intake stroke was studied using 2 different experimental techniques, namely the 2–D Particle Image Velocimetry (2–D PIV) and 3–D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3–D PTV) techniques. Both studies were conducted using a water analog engine simulation rig. The head tested was a typical pent–roof head geometry with two intake valves and one exhaust valve, and the simulated engine operating point corresponded to an idle condition. For both the 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV experiments, high–speed CCD cameras were used to record the motion of the flow tracer particles. The camera frame rate was adjusted to correspond to 1/4° of crank angle (CA), hence ensuring excellent temporal resolution for velocity calculations. For the 2–D PIV experiment, the flow field was illuminated by an Argon–ion laser with laser–sheet forming optics and this laser sheet was introduced through a transparent piston crown to illuminate the center tumble plane.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Properties of the Upper Thoracic Spine-Pectoral Girdle (UTS-PG) System and Corresponding Kinematics in PMHS Sled Tests

Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) should accurately depict head kinematics in crash tests, and thoracic spine properties have been demonstrated to affect those kinematics. To investigate the relationships between thoracic spine system dynamics and upper thoracic kinematics in crash-level scenarios, three adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were tested in both Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM) and sled configurations. In frontal sled tests, the T6-T8 vertebrae of the PMHS were coupled through a novel fixation technique to a rigid seat to directly measure thoracic spine loading. Mid-thoracic spine and belt loads along with head, spine, and pectoral girdle (PG) displacements were measured in 12 sled tests conducted with the three PMHS (3-pt lap-shoulder belted/unbelted at velocities from 3.8 - 7.0 m/s applied directly through T6-T8).
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS in Moderate-Speed Rear Impacts and Development of Response Targets for Evaluating the Internal and External Biofidelity of ATDs

The objectives of this study were to obtain biomechanical responses of post mortem human subjects (PMHS) by subjecting them to two moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions (8.5g, 17 km/h; 10.5g, 24 km/h) while positioned in an experimental seat system, and to create biomechanical targets for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact ATDs. The experimental seat was designed to measure external loads on the head restraint (4 load cells), seat back (6 load cells), and seat pan (4 load cells) such that subject dynamic interaction with the seat could be evaluated. This seat system was capable of simulating the dynamic characteristics of modern vehicle seat backs by considering the moment-rotation properties of a typical passenger vehicle, thus providing a more realistic test environment than using a rigid seat with a non-rotating seat back as done in previous studies.