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Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of A Real-Time Control Methodology in Resistance Spot Welding

1991-02-01
910191
The single-parameter, in-process monitor and automatic control systems for the resistance spot welding process have been studied by many investigators. Some of these have already been commercialized and used by sheet metal fabricators. These control systems operate primarily on one of the three process parameters: maximum voltage or voltage drop, dynamic resistance, or thermal expansion between electrodes during nugget formation. Control systems based on voltage or dynamic resistance have been successfully implemented for industrial applications. A great amount of experience on these two control methods has been accumulated through trial-and-error approaches. The expansion-based control system is not commonly utilized due to lack of experience and understanding of the process. Since the expansion displacement between electrodes during welding responds directly to the weld nugget formation, this control parameter provides a better means to produce more precise spot welds.
Technical Paper

Use of Robust DOB/CDOB Compensation to Improve Autonomous Vehicle Path Following Performance in the Presence of Model Uncertainty, CAN Bus Delays and External Disturbances

2018-04-03
2018-01-1086
Autonomous vehicle technology has been developing rapidly in recent years. Vehicle parametric uncertainty in the vehicle model, variable time delays in the CAN bus based sensor and actuator command interfaces, changes in vehicle sped, sensitivity to external disturbances like side wind and changes in road friction coefficient are factors that affect autonomous driving systems like they have affected ADAS and active safety systems in the past. This paper presents a robust control architecture for automated driving systems for handling the abovementioned problems. A path tracking control system is chosen as the proof-of-concept demonstration application in this paper. A disturbance observer (DOB) is embedded within the steering to path error automated driving loop to handle uncertain parameters such as vehicle mass, vehicle velocities and road friction coefficient and to reject yaw moment disturbances.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0135
A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Technical Paper

The 2002 Ohio State University FutureTruck - The BuckHybrid002

2003-03-03
2003-01-1269
This year, in the third year of FutureTruck competition, the Ohio State University team has taken the challenge to convert a 2002 Ford Explorer into a more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly SUV. This goal was achieved by use of a post-transmission, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid diesel-electric drivetrain. The main power source is a 2.5-liter, 103 kW advanced CIDI engine manufactured by VM Motori. A 55 kW Ecostar AC induction electric motor provides the supplemental power. The powertrain is managed by a state of the art supervisory control system which optimizes powertrain characteristics using advanced energy management and emission control algorithms. A unique driver interface implementing advanced telematics, and an interior designed specifically to reduce weight and be more environmentally friendly add to the utility of the vehicle as well as the consumer appeal.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

2003-03-03
2003-01-1281
A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer Controlled Automated Steering Controller

2005-04-11
2005-01-0394
This paper describes the design and development of the hardware, electronics, and software components of a state-of-the-art automated steering controller, the SEA, Ltd. ASC. The function of the ASC is to input to a vehicle virtually any steering profile with both high accuracy and repeatability. The ASC is designed to input profiles having steering rates and timing that are in excess of the limits of a human driver. The ASC software allows the user to specify steering profiles and select controller settings, including motor controller gains, through user-interface windows. This makes it possible for the test driver to change steering profiles and settings immediately after running any test maneuver. The motor controller used in the ASC offers self-contained signal input, output, and data storage capabilities. Thus, the ASC can operate as a standalone steering machine or it can be incorporated into typical existing, on-vehicle data acquisition systems.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

2011-09-13
2011-01-2163
Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Journal Article

Design and Operation of a Brake and Throttle Robot

2009-04-20
2009-01-0429
This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR.
Technical Paper

Camera Based Automated Lane Keeping Application Complemented by GPS Localization Based Path Following

2018-04-03
2018-01-0608
Advances in sensor solutions in the automotive sector make it possible to develop better ADAS and autonomous driving functions. One of the main tasks of highway chauffeur and highway pilot automated driving systems is to keep the vehicle between the lane lines while driving on a pre-defined route. This task can be achieved by using camera and/or GPS to localize the vehicle between the lane lines. However, both sensors have shortcomings in certain scenarios. While the camera does not work when there are no lane lines to be detected, an RTK GPS can localize the vehicle accurately. On the other hand, GPS requires at least 3 satellite connections to be able to localize the vehicle and more satellite connections and real-time over-the-air corrections for lane-level positioning accuracy. If GPS localization fails or is not accurate enough, lane line information from the camera can be used as a backup.
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