Modeling and Sensorless Estimation for Single Spring Solenoids
This paper presents an empirical dynamic model of a single spring electromagnetic solenoid actuator system, including bounce, temperature effects and coil leakage inductance. The model neglects hysteresis and saturation, the aim being to compensate for these uncertainties through estimator robustness. The model is validated for all regions of operation and there is a good agreement between model and experimental data. A nonlinear (sliding mode) estimator is developed to estimate position and speed from current measurements. Since the estimator makes use of only current measurement it is given the name sensorless. The estimator is validated in simulation and experimentally. The novelty in this paper lies in the fact that accurate state estimation can be realized on a simple linear model using a robust observer theory. Also, the formulations for leakage inductance and coil temperature are unique.