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Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Truck Driveline Systems through Advanced Bearing Design and Technology

2012-10-02
2012-36-0204
Improved fuel economy translates into significant savings over the life of a fleet vehicle. Aside from fuel cost savings, tighter emissions regulations require truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to improve the fuel economy of the products they bring to market. OEMs are dependent on Tier 1 suppliers for many systems which have a direct impact on vehicle fuel efficiency. Tier 1 suppliers are then dependent on sub-suppliers for components which affect the fuel efficiency of the system. Improvements in tapered roller bearing design and technology can significantly improve the fuel efficiency of driveline systems. This paper summarizes the improvement in bearing efficiency by applying advanced design and technology solutions. Analysis was used to predict the affect of design changes, leading to an optimized solution. Testing was performed to verify the improvement in bearing efficiency.
Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

1993-11-01
932981
Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.
Technical Paper

The 1978 Chrysler Torque Converter Lock-Up Clutch

1978-02-01
780100
A torque converter lock-up clutch was introduced by Chrysler Corporation in a majority of its passenger cars in the 1978 model year. The lock-up clutch improves fuel economy by eliminating torque converter slip in direct gear above a predetermined speed. The clutch and its controls were designed to fit within the confines of the existing transmission. The development of the clutch was primarily concerned with achieving adequate endurance life, good shift quality and isolation of torsional vibrations.
Technical Paper

TFC/IW

1978-02-01
780937
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia (test) weight is a useful concept in analyzing the total or composite fuel economy generated in thousands of tests using the carbon balance technique in EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway Driving Cycle. TFC/IW is a measure of drive train efficiency that requires no additional complicating assumptions. It is applicable to one test or a fleet representing many tests.
Technical Paper

Chrysler's New Front Wheel Drive Automatic Transmission

1979-02-01
790018
A new three-speed automatic transmission has been designed, developed and is being produced in the U.S. by the Chrysler Corporation for its new family of front wheel drive vehicles. The transmission was designed around the Chrysler-proven TorqueFlite concept. The features of the new transmission include a “folded” construction for installation in a transverse power train. The case is a one-piece aluminum die cast housing and contains the final drive and differential unit. This paper describes the design and development of this new automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Design and Selection Factors for Automatic Transaxle Tapered Roller Bearings

1992-02-01
920609
Tapered roller bearings have proven successful in a number of high-volume automatic transaxle designs. Typically, tapered roller bearings are required to carry high loads generated by helical and hypoid gears. To meet the demands of a successful design, a number of factors must be considered in the selection and application of tapered roller bearings. This paper presents a discussion of these factors as well as results from Chrysler's transaxle testing. Selection of tapered roller bearings is based on the transmission duty cycle developed using load and speed histograms, gear data, size constraints, and life requirements. A bearing life analysis considering the total transaxle system is conducted using a sophisticated computer program. Various system effects are analyzed including the load/speed cycle, housing and shaft rigidity, lubrication, bearing setting, thermal effects, and bearing internal design.
Technical Paper

The Chrysler PowerFlite Transmission

1954-01-01
540261
THE design and construction of the PowerFlite automatic transmission are described by the authors. It is of the torque converter type, some models being water-cooled, while others are direct air cooled. Details of the hydraulic controls are explained, including the one-piece shift valve and the shuttle valve for controlling closed-throttle shifts. It is claimed that this transmission has relative simplicity, light weight, and smoothness of operation.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Energy and the Automobile - General Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Consumption

1973-02-01
730518
Since 1968, vehicle weight increases and emissions controls have reduced fuel economy substantially. Additional losses in economy and acceleration will be experienced through 1976. Recommendations are made to lessen the impact of the predicted losses. Factors influencing fuel economy and acceleration are examined for an intermediate car. Changes in engine efficiency and displacement, compression ratio, torque converter, transmission, axle ratio, aerodynamic drag, tires, accessories, vehicle weight, and emissions controls are examined. When practical, the effects of 10% changes are analyzed. Comparisons are also made with a subcompact and a luxury vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Lever Analogy: A New Tool in Transmission Analysis

1981-02-01
810102
A new tool for analyzing transmissions that use planetary gearsets is presented. With this tool, entire transmissions are usually represented by a single lever, and the calculation of most characteristics is as simple as summing moments of a lever. A miniature cookbook of levers, for various planetary arrangements is included which can be helpful in selecting a planetary to achieve the desired objectives of a user.
Technical Paper

Application of Design and Development Techniques for Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0506
Gasoline direct injection technology is receiving increased attention among automotive engineers due to its high potential to reach future emission and fuel economy goals. This paper reports some of the design and development techniques in use at Chrysler as applied to four-stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines. The spray characteristics of Chrysler's single-fluid high-pressure injector are reported. Tools used in the design process are identified. Observations of the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process using laser diagnostic techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are described. Finally, combustion and emissions characteristics using Design of Experiment (DoE) tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Package Bearings to Improve Driveline Performance

2000-06-19
2000-01-1785
The tapered roller bearings employed in axle centers for the pinion support are critical components in determining the noise, fuel economy and reliability characteristics of the vehicle. They represent a relatively complex mechanical and tribological system, with special requirements from the stiffness, lubrication and heat transfer points of view. This paper brings a contribution to the investigation of the intricate dependency between design parameters, environmental factors and the resultant performance of a package bearing in an integral double cup configuration. Axial compactness, reduced weight, and superior rigidity are only few of the multiple advantages recommending this type of double row bearings for automotive driveline applications. Different aspects related to the tapered roller bearing setting are analyzed in a theoretical and experimental manner, also under the consideration of the manufacturing and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

1994-03-01
940445
Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

Architecture and Operation of the HIP7010 J1850 Byte-Level Interface Circuit

1995-02-01
950035
As a cost effective solution to making microcontroller based systems “J1850[1] aware”, a peripheral device (the HIP7010) was developed to extend the capabilities of standard microcontrollers. From the perspective of the Host, the peripheral device handles J1850 messages as a series of bytes (similar in concept to a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter [UART]). The architecture of the HIP7010 is discussed. The design of the J1850 interface, state machine, status/control blocks, cyclical redundancy check (CRC) hardware, host interface, and fail-safe features are detailed. Illustrations are provided of: Host/HIP7010 interfacing; message transmission and reception; error handling; and In-Frame Response (IFR) generation.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

1993-03-01
930671
A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

Developments in Dynamometer Control Methods

1972-02-01
720453
The application of automation to dynamometer testing of engines has led to the development of specialized circuits and techniques to compensate for limitations inherent within the electromechanical systems used to implement automation theory. Stable, quick response to a programmed speed change has been achieved for engine-automatic transmission testing by the use of a parallel feedback technique. Vehicle simulation using analog computer circuitry and road test data is used to calculate torque requirements from programmed acceleration-time and velocity-time curves. Similar circuitry is used to calculate engine-transmission output torque from dynamometer parameters.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Torque Flite Transmission

1958-01-01
580018
THIS paper describes the Chrysler TorqueFlite transmission, a 3-speed unit with torque converter. The discussion includes details of the push-button controls of the automatic transmission, operation of the transmission and hydraulic controls, power transmission through the gearbox, and design of several of the components. The authors think that the TorqueFlite offers to a greater degree the advantages of automatic transmission: ease of operation and maximum power over a wide range of car speeds.
Technical Paper

Rating Transmissions from Highway Requirements and Vehicle Specifications

1960-01-01
600009
THE GRADEABILITY formula can be used as the basic means for rating a truck transmission. By correlating the gradeabilities in the various gear ratios with a highway requirement probability curve, the per cent of time in each ratio can be obtained. The required hours of gear life for each ratio are then determined, and compared with the available gear life in the ratios. This procedure gives a detailed analysis of a transmission rating for one vehicle specification at a specified mileage between overhauls. A limitation of the system is that it cannot be applied quickly to various vehicle specifications. The paper outlines the method for constructing a nomogram to overcome this.*
Technical Paper

Fuel Mixture Temperature Variations in the Intake Port

1996-05-01
961194
Temperature variation and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially during the warm up period. Cold temperatures in the intake port result in a large amount of liquid-fuel film. Since the liquid-fuel film responds at a slower speed than the gas-phase flow during transient operations, the liquid-fuel film acts as a fuel sink (or source) and can degrade the vehicle's driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. In this work, a one-dimensional, unsteady, multicomponent, multiphase flow model has been developed to study the mixture formation process in the intake port for a modern, multipoint-fuel-injection, gasoline engine. The droplet, liquid film and gas-phase mixture temperature variations and the effects of charge air, initial fuel and port wall temperatures involved in generating the air-fuel mixture are examined.
Technical Paper

New Concept Modular Manual Transmission Clutch and Flywheel Assembly

1992-09-01
922110
Most United States vehicle assembly plants produce significantly more automatic transmission equipped vehicles than manual transmission vehicles. Assembling these two vehicles on a common production line can create complexity problems. This paper describes the design and development of a pre-assembled manual transmission clutch and flywheel modular assembly which reduces most of these problems. This assembly is used on the 1993 model year mini-van with a 2.5L four cylinder engine. This modular clutch system utilizes the same starter ring gear carrier (driveplate) used on automatic transmission equipped vehicles. It pilots into the crankshaft similar to the automatic transmission torque converter. It is balanced as an assembly which results in a lower system imbalance. A significant system piece cost saving, in comparison with today's competitive market, was achieved.
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