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Technical Paper

Friction Measurement in the Valve Train with a Roller Follower

1994-03-01
940589
The valve train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod forces, and cam speed. Results are presented for one exhaust valve of a motored Cummins L-10 engine. The instantaneous cam/roller friction force was determined from the instantaneous roller speed and the pin friction torque. The pushrod force and displacement were also measured. Friction work loss was determined for both cam and roller interface as well as the upper valve train which includes the valve pushrod, rocker arm, valve guide, and valve. Roller follower slippage on the cam was also determined. A kinematic analysis with the measured data provided the normal force and contact stress at cam/roller interface.(1) Finally, the valve train friction was found to be in the mixed lubrication regime.(2) Further efforts will address the theoretical analysis of valve train friction to predict roller slippage.
Technical Paper

Automobile Demand and the Policy Forecast

1983-02-01
830494
Mathematical models of the automotive system play a valuable role in forecasting and policy analysis, especially in the public sector. However, poor documentation, lack of adequate model evaluation and unfamiliarity with the data and structural limitations of models suggest the possibility of misuse in such policy applications as fuel economy standards and regulatory impact assessments. Findings are illustrated by analysis of two models: the Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model and the Sweeney Passenger Car Gasoline Demand Model. In addition, 40 world sector models and studies representing more than 75 countries are summarized.
Technical Paper

Rearview Mirror Reflectivity and the Tradeoff Between Forward and Rearward Seeing

1992-02-01
920404
In a laboratory study and in a mathematical modeling effort, we evaluated the effects of rearview mirror reflectivity on older and younger subjects' seeing ability under conditions designed to simulate night driving with headlamp glare present in the mirror. Rearview mirror reflectivity was varied while observers were required to detect both rearward stimuli seen through the mirror and forward stimuli seen directly. Lower reflectivity resulted in improved ability to see forward and reduced ability to see to the rear. The reduction in ability to see to the rear was much larger than the improvement in forward seeing. The results of the modeling and the laboratory study were in broad agreement, although there were some significant discrepancies. Although the present results cannot be used to make specific recommendations for rearview mirror reflectivity, they suggest that the reduction in rearward vision as reflectivity is lowered should be considered carefully.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Airbag-Induced Skin Abrasions

1992-11-01
922510
Static deployments of driver-side airbags into the legs of human subjects were used to investigate the effects of inflator capacity, internal airbag tethering, airbag fabric, and the distance from the module on airbag-induced skin abrasion. Abrasion mechanisms were described by measurements of airbag fabric velocity and target surface pressure. Airbag fabric kinematics resulting in three distinct abrasion patterns were identified. For all cases, abrasions were found to be caused primarily by high-velocity fabric impactrather than scraping associated with lateral fabric motion. Use of higher-capacity inflators increased abrasion severity, and untethered airbags produced more severe abrasions than tethered airbags at distances greater than the length of the tether. Abrasion severity decreased as the distance increased from 225 to 450 mm. Use of a finer-weave airbag fabric in place of a coarser-weave fabric did not decrease the severity of abrasion.
Technical Paper

Model Analysis of a Diesel Engine Cylinder Block using HEXA8 Finite Elements - Analysis and Experiment

1988-10-01
881853
Analytical and experimental investigations of a diesel engine cylinder block are performed. An attempt is made to reduce modeling and analysis costs in the design process of an engine. Traditionally, the engine has been modeled using either 8-node or 20-node solid elements for stress and thermal analyses and modeled using 4-node plate and shell elements for the dynamic analysis. In this paper, a simpler finite element modeling technique using only 8 node solid elements for both dynamic and static analyses is presented. Based on this integrated modeling technique of finite elements, eigenvalues are calculated and compared with the experimental data obtained from modal testing of an actual engine cylinder block.
Technical Paper

Modal Overlap at Low Frequencies - A Stochastic Approach for Vehicle System Modal Management

2003-05-05
2003-01-1612
In the early stages of a vehicle program, it is a common practice to set target ranges for the global body, suspension and powertrain modes. This modal management process allows engineers to avoid potential noise and vibration problems stemming from strong overlap of major global modes. Before the first prototype hardware is built, finite element models of the body, suspension and powertrain are usually exercised to compare predicted versus targeted ranges of the major system modes in the form of a modal management chart. However, uncertainty associated with the design parameters, manufacturing process and other sources can lead to a major departure from the design intent when the first hardware prototype is built. In this study, a first order reliability method is used to predict variance of the eigen values due to parameter uncertainties. This allows the CAE engineers to add a “three sigma” bound on the eigen values reported in the modal management chart.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Damping Treatment for Structure Borne Noise Reduction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1592
In automotive industry, all passenger vehicles are treated with damping materials to reduce structure borne noise. The effectiveness of damping treatments depends upon design parameters such as choice of damping materials, locations and size of the treatment. This paper proposes a CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methodology based on finite element analysis to optimize damping treatments. The developed method uses modal strain-energy information of bare structural panels to identify flexible regions, which in turn facilitates optimization of damping treatments with respect to location and size. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by optimizing damping treatment for a full-size pick-up truck. Moreover, simulated road noise performances of the truck with and without damping treatments are compared, which show the benefits of applying damping treatment.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Effects of Vehicle Size and Mass on Crash-Injury Outcome through Parameterized Probability Manifolds

2003-03-03
2003-01-0905
One way to improve vehicle's fuel economy is to reduce its weight. Reducing weight, however has other consequences. One of these is reduced vehicle size. Almost invariably, lighter vehicles are smaller. Reducing vehicle weight has also been associated with a reduction in occupant protection; the lighter the vehicle, the greater the chance of injury when a crash occurs. For this study, a data-based model is used to evaluate the independent effects of size and weight. This model is constructed using the NASS database and information obtained from NCAP tests. The results indicate that although mass is the dominant factor, size also has an effect; some of the observed reduction in safety benefits associated with mass reduction is actually an effect of size reduction. The model is also used to evaluate the effects of varying stiffness.
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0689
Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms of Sandwich Specimens With Epoxy Foam Cores Under Bending Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0327
Sandwich specimens with DP590 steel face sheets and structural epoxy foam cores are investigated under three-point bending conditions. Experimental results indicate that the maximum loads correspond to extensive cracking in the foam cores. Finite element simulations of the bending tests are also performed to understand the failure mechanisms of the epoxy foams. In these simulations, the plastic behavior of the steel face sheets is modeled by the Mises yield criterion with consideration of plastic strain hardening. A pressure sensitive yield criterion is used to model the plastic behavior of the epoxy foam cores. The epoxy foams are idealized to follow an elastic perfectly plastic behavior. The simulation results indicate that the load-displacement responses of some sandwich specimens agree with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Experimental & Computational Simulations Utilized During the Aerodynamic Development of the Dodge Intrepid R/T Race Car

2002-12-02
2002-01-3334
Experimental and computational simulation techniques were concurrently employed throughout the aerodynamic development of the NASCAR Dodge Intrepid R/T in order to achieve a greater understanding of the complex flow fields involved. With less than 500 days to design, understand, and build a competitive vehicle, the development team utilized a closed loop approach to testing. Scale wind tunnel models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to identify program direction and to speed the development cycle versus the traditional process of full scale testing. This paper will detail the process and application of both the experimental and computational techniques used in the aerodynamic development of the Intrepid R/T race vehicle, primarily focusing on the earlier stages that led to its competition introduction at the start of the 2001 season.
Technical Paper

Automotive Seat Suspension Model for Ride Quality Studies

2002-03-04
2002-01-0778
A high fidelity seat suspension model, which can be used for ride quality predictions, is developed in this work. The coil-spring seat suspension model includes unique nonlinear forms for the stiffness and damping characteristics. This is the first paper to consider the nonlinear geometric effects of the suspension, derive the coil-spring suspension model from physical principles, and compare theoretical and experimental results. A simplified nonlinear form is achieved via an admissible function describing the vertical suspension deflection as a function of the lateral position. This simplified nonlinear form is compared to experimental data and demonstrated to have exceptional fidelity.
Technical Paper

SIMULATION OF A VEHICLE SUSPENSION WITH THE ADAMS COMPUTER PROGRAM

1977-02-01
770053
This paper describes a computer simulation of the front suspension of a 1973 Chevrolet Malibu using the ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) computer program. The model was proposed by the SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee for evaluating the speed, economy and accuracy of various computer simulations in predicting displacements and loads in a suspension system. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is given.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Gaseous Fuel-Air Mixing in Direct Injection Engines Using an RNG Based k-ε Model

1998-02-23
980135
Direct injection of natural gas under high pressure conditions has emerged as a promising option for improving engine fuel economy and emissions. However, since the gaseous injection technology is new, limited experience exists as to the optimum configuration of the injection system and associated combustion chamber design. The present study uses KIVA-3 based, multidimensional modeling to improve the understanding and assist the optimization of the gaseous injection process. Compared to standard k-ε models, a Renormalization Group Theory (RNG) based k-ε model [1] has been found to be in better agreement with experiments in predicting gaseous penetration histories for both free and confined jet configurations. Hence, this validated RNG model is adopted here to perform computations in realistic engine geometries.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Fastened Joints in Automotive Engineering

2007-04-16
2007-01-1204
In this paper, the methodology of finite element analyses of fastened joints in automotive engineering applications is described in detail. The analyses cover a) the possibility of slippage of the spacer with the design/actual clamp load, and under critical operating loads; b) the strength of the fastener and other structural components comprising the joint under the maximum clamp load. The types of fastened joints, the mechanical characteristics of the joints, the relationship of clamp load to torque, the design and maximum clamp loads, the finite element model meshing and assembly, the non-linearity due to contact, the determination of gaps and stack-up, and the nonlinear material simulation and loading procedures are described. An analysis example of a fastened joint on chassis is also illustrated.
Technical Paper

Strength Prediction and Correlation of Tow Hook Systems using Finite Element Analyses

2007-04-16
2007-01-1206
In this paper, tow hook systems and their functional objectives are briefly introduced. General analysis considerations in strength prediction of a tow hook system are described. These considerations contain nonlinear, clamping and material property simulations. Connections and loading simulation of a tow hook system model are discussed in details. A correlation example of a tow hook system is illustrated. This study shows that detailed modeling of a tow hook system is a fundamental requirement for accurate strength prediction and good correlation between finite element analysis and testing.
Technical Paper

A Fatigue Crack Growth Model for Spot Welds in Square-Cup and Lap-Shear Specimens under Cyclic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1373
A fatigue crack growth model is adopted in this paper to investigate the fatigue lives of resistance spot welds in square-cup and lap-shear specimens of dual phase, low carbon and high strength steels under cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue crack growth model is based on the global stress intensity factor solutions for main cracks, the local stress intensity factor solutions for kinked cracks as functions of the kink length, the experimentally determined kink angles, and the Paris law for kinked crack propagation. The predicted fatigue lives based on the fatigue crack growth model are then compared with the experimental data. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the fatigue crack growth model are in agreement with or lower than the experimental results.
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