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Technical Paper

High Temperature Gasification of Solid Fuels

1999-08-02
1999-01-2649
A new energy extraction and utilization system for low grade solid fuels such as coal and wastes is proposed, where solid fuels are gasified with high temperature air. The syngas is first cooled in a waste heat recovery boiler to extract its sensible thermal energy followed by conventional low temperature gas cleaning. A part of this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating while the rest is used for various energy utilization and conversion systems such as industrial furnaces, boilers and gas turbines. Experimental demonstration results for two main components, i.e. a gasifier and a high temperature air preheater are reported.
Technical Paper

Multi-Step Water Splitting with Mn-Ferrite/Sodium Carbonate System

1999-08-02
1999-01-2670
Multi-step water splitting with Mn-ferrite(MnFe2O4)/sodium carbonate(Na2CO3) system accompanying endothermic reaction was investigated for converting solar energy into chemical energy. This water splitting is caused by the oxidation-reduction of manganese ion in the Mn-ferrite. Multi-water splitting with MnFe2O4/Na2CO3 system was consisted of three steps. The first step was hydrogen generation at 1073K. The second step was oxygen release at 1273K. The third step was Na2CO3 reproduction at 873K. The mechanism of multi-water splitting has been considered by XRD, chemical analysis of colorimetry and back titration. The temperature range 873 to 1273K is quite lower than those studied on the solar furnace reaction (O2 releasing step) in two-step water splitting (1500-2300K). This lower temperature range would permit further progress in converting the direct solar energy into chemical energy.
Technical Paper

Solar Furnace System Using Tower-Reflector with Ellipsoidal Mirror

1999-08-02
1999-01-2671
A new solar furnace system using a stationary elliptic dish and heliostats is proposed. Since the elliptic dish has two focuses (an upper focus and a lower focus) for elliptic geometry, this system has three advantages. The first is enable to fix a solar reactor on the ground, the second to expand the heliostat field largely, and the third to concentrate the direct solar radiation in a small area around the lower focus. The horizontal deviation from the lower focus of the direct solar radiation was estimated within ±1.2m for the heliostat field of 100m and the tower-reflector height of 70m. The system using the elliptic dish and heliostats is available as high-concentration system due to large scale of solar energy.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ignition Delay of Diesel Fuel Spray via Numerical Simulation

2000-06-19
2000-01-1892
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a discrete droplet spray model (DDM) coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions. Predicted results show that the fuel mixture injected at the start of injection, which travels along midway between the spray axis and the spray periphery, contributes heavily to the first ignition in a spray. The equivalence ratio and temperature of the first ignited mixture are kept nearly constant until the start of hot ignition. The temperature of the first ignited mixture is kept at a constant value of higher temperature than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture before the hot ignition starts. The equivalence ratio of the first ignited mixture is around 1.6 at initial gas temperatures between 750 K and 850 K.
Technical Paper

Optimum Engine Mounting Layout by Genetic Algorithm

2001-11-12
2001-01-2810
In this study, the genetic algorithm so called GA is newly applied for the optimization of many engine mounting parameters, calculations of stiffness matrix and inverse matrix to obtain 6 degrees of freedoms displacements at mounting points and a center of gravity. As a result, the optimized result could be shortly obtained in a minute, and an inexperienced engineer could easily make the optimum engine mounting layout, which can satisfy the vibration isolation and the non-interference in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Polytopic Modeling and State Observer Synthesis for Suspension System with Variant Damping and Stiffness

2001-04-30
2001-01-1579
This paper presents the polytopic modeling method and state variable observer design approach for semi-active suspension with changeable damping and variant stiffness elements. And such semi-active suspension system is suitable to be modeled as a dynamic polytopic system where the extreme vertices of damping and stiffness values are taken as the convex vertices of polytope. Thus, a dynamic polytopic model is the convex synthesis with all the vertex system dynamics and linear system theory can be applied to the system at each vertex. Herein, the conventional Kalman filter theory is utilized to design the observer for each vertex system, then the polytopic observer is formulated by a convex synthesis. The proposed observer design approach is testified by numerical study and vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Polytopic topic Bilinear System Modeling and Nonlinear H∞ Control Design for Semi-Active Suspension System

2001-04-30
2001-01-1580
As an important class of nonlinear system, polytopic bilinear system is investigated. Combined with the properties of convex polytope, the nonlinear control for polytopic bilinear system is formulated by synthesizing nonlinear H∞ controller which is designed for polytopic bilinear system at vertices. For a semi-active suspension system with controllable damping and variant stiffness elements, it is easily modeled as a polytopic bilinear system model. In this case, the desired nonlinear control properties are pursued in making effective use of the changeable damping property while the variant stiffness is taken as the affine parameter of polytopic model. Therefore, polytopic bilinear system model could be reduced to a feasible problem by polytopic convex decomposition. Then the control problem of bilinear system model is to find a solution of nonlinear H∞ control.
Technical Paper

The influence that the disclosure of idling noise exerts on HRV and respiratory frequency

2000-06-12
2000-05-0329
The sense of a human being is expressed in a word always with the sensuous evaluation to idling noise. However, due to the sense of the human being is very complicated basically and be including delicate elements, there is a limit to express it in a word. Also, idling noise might be giving a stress to our body, without feeling it. Then, several studies have been made on physiological information receive the response of a human being objectively, tried to evaluate the load of a body. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiratory curve were measured to examine the influence that the disclosure of idling noise exerts on the autonomic nervous system function in this study. Heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained from ECG and respiratory frequency was obtained from respiratory curve in the analysis. Seven subjects were adult males who were healthy hearing. We investigated the result with considering the differences by 4 kinds of noise and 2 kinds of sound pressure.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

2001-04-30
2001-01-1453
Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous 2-D Imaging of OH Radicals and Soot in a Diesel Flame by Laser Sheet Techniques

1996-02-01
960834
The OH and soot in an unsteady flame, which was achieved in a rapid compression machine, were visualized simultaneously by the laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced scattering techniques. The fuel mixture consisting of 90% paraffin hydrocarbon (reference fuel) and 10% polypropylene-glycol was used to reduce the optical attenuation caused by dense soot cloud. The simultaneous images of the fluorescence from OH and scattering from soot show that the soot and OH exist separately from each other in the leading portion of the spray flame, and the OH is formed earlier than the soot in the near field region of spray flame.
Technical Paper

H∞ Control Design of Experimental State-Space Modeling for Vehicle Vibration Suppression

1997-05-20
971949
State-space solutions of H∞ controller have been well developed. Hence to a real structure control design, the first step is to get a state space model of the structure. There are analytical and experimental dynamic modeling methods. As we know, it is hard to obtain an accurate model for a flexible and complex structure by FEM(Finite Element Method). Then the experimental modeling methods are used. In this paper, we use frequency domain modal analysis technique based on system FRF(Frequency Response Function) data and ERA(Eigensystem Realization Algorithm) time domain method based on system impulse response data to establish state-space model in order to design H∞ control law for the purpose of vibration suppression. The robust control implementation is exerted on a testbed (truck cab model device) with three degrees of freedom. The validity of experimental state-space modeling is testified and the obvious vibration control performances are achieved.
Technical Paper

A Two-Zone Model Analysis of Heat Release Rate in Diesel Engines

1997-10-01
972959
A thermodynamic two-zone model which assumes a stoichiornetric burned gas region and unburned air region is presented in an attempt to calculate more precise rate of heat release of diesel combustion. A comparison is made of the rate of heat release obtained by the two-zone model with that obtained by the conventional single-zone model. It shows around 10 % increase in the rate of heat release with the two-zone model. The effect of state equation of gas is also examined with the single-zone model and the use of a real gas law in stead of the perfect gas law is found to yield minor difference in the rate of heat release at a high boost operating condition.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Structure of Diesel Sprays Using 2-D Imaging Techniques

1992-02-01
920107
The structure of dense sprays was investigated using 2-D imaging techniques. To investigate the mechanism of atomization, the liquid phase in a non-evaporating spray was visualized by a thin laser sheet formed by a single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser at the distance from 4 to 19 mm from the nozzle orifice with the injection pressure and the surrounding gas density as parameters. A new technique for the visualization of vapor phase in an evaporating spray, the SSI (Silicone particle Scattering Imaging) method, was proposed to investigate the structure of the vapor phase regions of the spray.
Technical Paper

A Study on Soot Formation in Unsteady Spray Flames via 2-D Soot Imaging

1992-02-01
920114
The formation and oxidation processes of soot particles in unsteady spray flames were investigated in a quiescent atmosphere using 2-D laser sheet visualization. The mid-plane of a flame was illuminated twice during a short time-interval by a laser sheet from a double-pulsed YAG laser. An image pair of the scattered light from soot particles was taken by two intensified gated cameras in succession. The velocity vectors of soot clouds at various location in the sooting region were estimated using the spatial correlation between the image pair. The results of temporal and spatial variation of velocity and scattering intensity in the evolving soot clusters made it clear that soot is mainly formed in the periphery of the flame tip where the air entrainment is less and flame temperature favors soot formation.
Technical Paper

Mixing Enhancement in Diesel-Like Flames via Flame Impingement on Turbulence-Generating Plates

1992-10-01
922210
Soot concentration is very high in the periphery near the head of an unsteady spray flame which is achieved in a quiescent atmosphere in a rapid compression machine. To reduce soot concentration in this region, it was intended to improve fuel-air mixing by letting the flame impinge on a turbulence-generating plate. Two types of turbulence-generating plates, one donut-type, the other cross-type, were tested. Soot concentration in the flame was imaged using the laser shadow technique. The effect of injection pressure on soot reduction by the flame impingement was also investigated. The overall soot concentration is reduced significantly in the case when the flame impinges on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 50 mm (333 nozzle diameters) from the nozzle exit. The flame impingement on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 333 nozzle diameters makes soot reduction little dependent on injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Motion and Temperature on Local Wall Heat Transfer in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

1992-10-01
922208
Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
Technical Paper

Combustion Enhancement of Very Lean Premixture Part in Stratified Charge Conditions

1996-10-01
962087
Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
Technical Paper

Heat Engine with Reciprocating Super-Adiabatic Combustion in Porous Media

1997-02-24
970201
A one-dimensional numerical calculation has been performed on a new reciprocating heat engine proposed on the basis of super-adiabatic combustion in porous media. The system consists of two pistons and a thin porous medium in a cylinder; one being a displacer piston and the other a power piston. These create reciprocating motions with a phase relation angle. By means of the reciprocating flow system, the residual combustion gas enthalpy is effectively regenerated to induce enthalpy increase in the mixture through the porous medium. Due to heat recirculation, the thermal efficiency reaches to 58% under the condition of the compression ratio of 2.3.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer From Impinging Diesel Flames to the Combustion Chamber Wall

1997-02-24
970896
The local heat fluxes from impinging combusting and evaporating diesel sprays to the wall of a square combustion chamber were measured in a rapid compression machine. It was revealed that the ratio of local heat flux between the combusting and evaporating spray, q̇c/q̇e, is of the same order of magnitude as (Tc-Tw)/(Te-Tw) and its values estimated by a two-zone model agree roughly with the measured ones. The time-mean local heat flux during the spray impingement was found to be approximately proportional to the 0.8th power of the injection velocity and the heat-transfer phenomenon depends largely on whether the ignition starts before or after the impingement.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines

1998-02-23
980501
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
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