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Technical Paper

On the Design of a Low Vibration Helical Gear for Automobiles

This study has revealed by taking nondimensional measures that the vibrational characteristics, basically the behaviour of stiffness, of helical gear pairs whose transverse and overlap contact ratios are invariant are identical. The feature is colligated correspondingly at the point on the contact ratio domain by the coordinate of their transverse and overlap contact ratio. By the colligation, the charts have been proposed as named the performance diagram on vibration, which indicate the level of vibration of a pair by contour lines on the contact ratio domain, after the vibrations of helical gear pairs are calculated by a developed simulator. The work has established the method of easy design and improvement for the lower vibration helical gear pair by a cursory glance at these proposed diagrams.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Ignition System Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges: Ignition Characteristics of Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Mixtures

A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with static induction thyristor at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IEC circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. In this paper, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems. The experiments were conducted using spherically expanding flame configuration for CH4 and C3H8-air mixtures under various conditions. In conclusions, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to extend lean flammability limits compared with conventional spark ignition systems. In addition, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges could shorten ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Extension of Lean and Diluted Combustion Stability Limits by Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges

A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Fuel Properties of Biodiesel from Jatropha, Palm and Petroleum Based Diesel Fuel

The increase of air pollution and global warming is a threat for human life. Besides, the price of petroleum is increasing rapidly and the resources are diminishing. This obliged scientists and engineers to look for alternative sources of energy, which are cleaner and more sustainable. Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyls of esters from vegetable oils and animals fat, is a cleaner renewable fuel and has been considered as the best alternative for petroleum based diesel fuel hence it can be used in any compression ignition engines without any significant modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions due to their higher content of oxygen. The produce less soot and hence the feed stuck is plant it will regenerate the CO2 by the photosynthesis which ensures the renewability and reduces global warming.
Technical Paper

Creation of Image on Diesel Spray and Flame by Means of Rapid Compression Machine and D.I Diesel Engine

The continous series of images on diesel spray and flame were created through the studies by means of using Rapid Compression Machine and D.I engine based on our latest data. 1. The image of diesel spray were elucidated through the study of thermodynamical global evaporation phenomena and the measurement of instantaneous distribution maps of spray fuel concentration by the high speed photo image analysis method at non-evaporated, evaporated states of free spray under the diesel condition at RCM. 2. The image of diesel flame were also obtained at the instantaneous distribution maps of temperature, soot and concentration of combustion products in the flame by means of photo image analysis method and gas sampling method at free and wall impinging spray flame with RCM and D.I engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Direct System Identification Method for Engine Rigid Body Mount System

This paper concerns the Direct System Identification Method (hereafter referred to as DSIM) which allows accurate and quick determination of two groups of properties which exercise dominant effects on low frequency vibration of a vehicle body. The first group is the rigid body properties of an engine. The second group is the properties of each engine mount. Under the assumption that the engine/mount system is a rigid body, this paper makes theoretical discussion for using the DSIM to induce the parameters of an engine/mount system, and makes improvements for better correlation with experiments. Also mentioned is a comparison of this study with the experimental results and verification of consistency on those parameters obtained from DSIM to predict the accurate vehicle characteristics, along with the role this method will play in upgrading the technology of prediction analysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Pressure Injection on Soot Formation Processes in a Rapid Compression Machine to Simulate Diesel Flames

The characteristics of diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 30 to 110 MPa. Measurements included the spray form and Sauter mean diameter of a non-evaporating spray, the liquid phase penetration of an evaporating spray and the visualization of sooting zone in a flame. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment of non-evaporating spray and that the liquid phase penetration of evaporating spray is hardly affected by injection pressure, demonstrating a promotion of evaporation with injection pressure. Visualization of the sooting zone in a flame made it clear that high pressure injection is advantageous in reducing soot formation and shortening the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine to Simulate Combustion in Diesel Engines

A rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate the combustion processes in diesel engines is developed. The configuration of the combustion chamber is a 100 mm bore and a 90 mm stroke, and the compression ratio is 15. The piston is driven by an electro-hydraulic system with a thrust of 90 kN and the maximum frequency of 20 Hz. The whole system composed of a hydraulic actuator, a fuel injection system, and a valve driving unit is sequentially controlled by a computer. The reproducibility of the stop position of the piston at the end of compression is achieved with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm by employing a hydraulic-mechanical brake mechanism. The experiment shows that the combustion in the expansion stroke is achieved, and that the combustion characteristics such as the rate of heat release and indicated output as well as the exhaust emission can be measured.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for the Measurement of Sauter Mean Diameter of Droplets in Unsteady Dense Sprays

A new technique is developed for the in-situ measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in non-evaporating transient dense sprays. This method analyzes the image of a shadowpicture of a spray based on the incident light extinction principle, and allows the sizing of Sauter mean diameter of whole droplets in a transient spray with any shape. In addition, this method allows the measurement of the local droplet size in a quasi-steady region of an axisymmetric spray if the conservation equations regarding mass and momentum are included in the calculation and data analysis. A calibration was carried out using glass beads as test particles: this was proved to have an accuracy of Sauter mean diameter measurement within 10%, on average. Applications of the new technique to both diesel and gasoline (EFI) sprays have been made.
Technical Paper

Pyrene-LIF Thermometry of the Early Soot Formation Region in a Diesel Spray Flame

In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection.
Technical Paper

A Study on Effect of Heterogeneity of Oxygen Concentration of Mixture in a Combustion Chamber on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engine

In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel flame achieved in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) at various patterns of oxygen distribution in the chamber are investigated in order to clarify the effect of heterogeneity of oxygen distribution in diesel engines induced by EGR on the soot and NOx emissions. To make the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in a combustion chamber, the mixtures with different oxygen concentrations are injected through the each different port located on the cylinder wall. Results indicate that the amount of oxygen entrained into the spray upstream the luminous flame region affects the NO emission from diesel flame strongly.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount Characteristics Identification of Large Outboard Motor Using Experimental Modal Analysis

The method was established to identify the dynamic stiffness of the engine mount using modal parameters acquired from experimental modal analysis. Vibration tests were conducted using actual large outboard motor the BF225 (165 kW), and the dynamic stiffness of the mounts was identified. The results show that this method can identify the engine mount dynamic stiffness more adequately than the conventional method, even when the engine mounts are subjected to loads corresponding to thrust force or even in the case that the stiffness of the parts supporting an outboard motor is low.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Structure of Diesel Sprays Using 2-D Imaging Techniques

The structure of dense sprays was investigated using 2-D imaging techniques. To investigate the mechanism of atomization, the liquid phase in a non-evaporating spray was visualized by a thin laser sheet formed by a single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser at the distance from 4 to 19 mm from the nozzle orifice with the injection pressure and the surrounding gas density as parameters. A new technique for the visualization of vapor phase in an evaporating spray, the SSI (Silicone particle Scattering Imaging) method, was proposed to investigate the structure of the vapor phase regions of the spray.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coexistent Additives on the Friction Characteristics and Tribofilm formation of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate

The major aim of this study is to investigate the tribofilm formation and friction-speed characteristics of ZnDTP in the presence of other lubricant additives. Simultaneous measurement of friction and electrical conductivity were employed using ZnDTP and several kinds of functionally different additives. Several analyses of friction surfaces were also carried out in order to measure the reaction film thickness and investigate the chemical composition of this film. It was demonstrated that the presence of each additive with ZnDTP prevented the formation of a ZnDTP tribofilm and thereby could provide lower friction than ZnDTP alone.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in a Transient Jet

To understand further the mixing process between the injected fuel and air in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, the turbulent mixing process in a one-phase, two-dimensional transient jet was theoretically studied using the discrete vortex simulation. First, the simulation model was evaluated by comparisons between calculated and experimental data on two-dimensional turbulent jets. Second, the trajectories of the injected fluid elements marked with different colors were graphically demonstrated. Also the process of entrainment of the surrounding fluid into the jet was visually presented using colored tracers.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Motion and Temperature on Local Wall Heat Transfer in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

A Photographic and Thermodynamic Study of Diesel Combustion in a Rapid Compression Machine

A diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were realized without interference with combustion chamber walls in a newly constructed rapid compression machine. High speed shadow photography and pressure measurement were employed to obtain data for calculating the amount of air entrainment into the the flame and spray. From a comparison of air entrainment between the flame and spray, it turned out that when ignition delay becomes longer air entrainment into flames is promoted by the thermal expansion of multi-points ignition sources in the central region of the spray.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine by Means of Image Analysis of Nega-Color Photographs

A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.