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Technical Paper

The System Identification for the Hydrostatic Drive System of Secondary Regulation Using Neural Networks

In this paper, the system identification theory and method using dynamic neural networks are presented, the multilayer feedforward networks employed, the backpropagation with adaptive learning rate algorithms proposed. Finally the comparision of network output with that of the hydrostatic drive system of secondary regulation is given, and output error, sum-squared error et al, or the results that embody the effect of system identification given sine input to it are provided.
Technical Paper

Power Matching and Control Strategy of Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Car

In this paper, based on the plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle development project, the vehicle technology solutions and the match of power system parameters were analyzed. The vehicle control strategies were identified and optimized according to plug-in hybrid vehicle features. The plug-in series hybrid, rule-based logic threshold switching control strategy, charge depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode are chosen according to the key factors, such as the environment, performance requirements, technical requirements and cost. And then the structure and model of vehicle control strategy were established to carry out vehicle energy management and power system control. The parameter selection, electric drive system matching, energy storage system design based on the requirement of vehicle performance, system architecture and control strategy are presented.
Technical Paper

Whole Field Bonded Steel Tensile Test Using Digital Image Correlation System

Adhesive bonding has many applications in the automotive industry. The single-lapped bonded joint is the most typically used among various bonding types. This paper presents experimental research for determining the strain field of the single-lapped joint under tensile loading. The materials for the joint are epoxy-based structural adhesive and low-carbon electrolytic zinc steel plate. In the study, a DIC (digital image correlation) system was adopted to measure the strain distribution of the bonded joint during a tensile test. The bonded steel coupons in the tensile test were prepared according to the ASTM standard. During the measurement, images of the coupon joint were taken before and after the deformation process. Then the DIC system measured the strain of bonded joint by comparing two consecutive images. The measured data from the DIC was compared to data taken simultaneously from a traditional extensometer.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Determination of Forming Limit Diagram Based on Digital Image Correlation

In this paper, a new method for determining the forming limit diagram (FLD) of thin sheet metals, called DIC-Grid method, is proposed based on digital image correlation (DIC) technique. It's assumed that there exists one virtual grid with an initial diameter of 2.5mm, which is usually the same dimension as the grid in traditional circular grid analysis, close to the crack of specimen, and the limit strain point on FLD is determined by the deformation of this virtual grid. The DIC-Grid method has been compared with traditional circular grid analysis and the standard ISO/FDIS 12004-2 in Nakajima tests. The results show that the forming limit strains obtained by the newly proposed method are more stable and precise. Furthermore, DIC-Grid method can avoid the measurement error which exists in the circular grid analysis. Meanwhile, it overcomes the shortcomings of time-consuming data processing and non-applicable for unrealistic strain distribution in the method of ISO standard.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Cold Start Emissions from a Two-Stage Direct Injection Gasoline Engines Employing the Total Stoichiometric Ratio and Local Rich Mixture Start-up Strategy

To improve the cold start performance and to reduce the misfire occurrence at cold start, the start-up strategy of total stoichiometric ratio combined with local rich mixture was applied in the study. The effect of injection strategy (the 1st injection timing, 2nd injection timing, 1st and 2nd fuel injection proportion and ignition timing) on the cold start HC emissions in the initial 10 cycles were investigated in a Two stage direct injection (TSDI) gasoline engine. The transient HC and NO emissions in the initial 10 cycles were analyzed, when the fuels are injected in the only 1st cycle and in the followed all cycles. The transient misfiring HC emissions were compared between the single and two-stage injection modes. In addition, the unburned HC (UBHC) emissions in the 1st cycle are compared among the TSDI engine, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, Port fuel injection (PFI) engine and Liquefied petroleum gaseous (LPG) engine at the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper


There is an enormous effort to implement safety functionality into battery systems to prevent any accidents with the poisonous and inflammable ingredients of the electrolytes and electrode materials. But not only the safety regulation for lithium ion batteries will be different in comparison to the home electronics application, also the operating strategy must be different to guaranty the required lifetime in the automotive industry up to 10-12 years. This paperwork will show an approach to get offline (on test benches) and/or online (installed inside the car) information regarding the current healthy and state inside the cell. As an approach modeling of physical effects by the help of electro impedance spectroscopy (EIS) will be applied.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Global and Local Deformation Behaviors of Similar Laser Welded Joints using Digital Image Correlation

Similar laser welded blanks with same material and same gauge have been extensive applied in automobile body for improving the material utilization and extending maximum coil size. It is known that, for TWBs with dissimilar material and thicknesses, the difference of material properties and/or thickness of the welded blanks, change of the material properties in the weld seam and heat-affected zones (HAZ) as well as location and orientation of the weld seam are reasons for reduced formability. However, the plastic deformation capacity of TWBs is reduced even when the material and thickness are the same. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the deformation behaviors of similar laser welded joints. Uniaxial tensile of five laser welded joints, with 90°,60°,45°,30°and 0°weld orientations, were tested by using optical measurement-DIC (Digital Image Correlation). Strain /strain ratio distribution and evolution of each joint was analyzed and compared with base material.
Technical Paper

A New Narrowband Active Noise Control System in the Presence of Frequency Mismatch and its Application for Steady-State Blower Noise

In order to reduce high-frequency harmonic noise produced by the blower in the auxiliary system of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), a narrowband active noise control (ANC) method instead of conventional passive mufflers is adopted since the blower demands clean air condition and expects good acoustic performance. However, in ANC practical applications, the frequency difference between reference signal and actual primary signal, i.e., frequency mismatch (FM), can significantly degrade the high-frequency performance of narrowband ANC system. In this paper, a new narrowband ANC system is proposed to compensate for the performance degeneration due to the existence of FM and improve noise reduction at high frequencies. The proposed system consists of two parts: the Filtered Error Least Mean Square (FELMS) algorithm filtering the primary signals at wide frequency range other than those at the targeted frequencies, and the FM removal algorithm proposed by Yegui Xiao.
Technical Paper

The Effect of High-Power Capacitive Spark Discharge on the Ignition and Flame Propagation in a Lean and Diluted Cylinder Charge

Research studies have suggested that changes to the ignition system are required to generate a more robust flame kernel in order to secure the ignition process for the future advanced high efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In a typical inductive ignition system, the spark discharge is initiated by a transient high-power electrical breakdown and sustained by a relatively low-power glow process. The electrical breakdown is characterized as a capacitive discharge process with a small quantity of energy coming mainly from the gap parasitic capacitor. Enhancement of the breakdown is a potential avenue effectively for extending the lean limit of SI engine. In this work, the effect of high-power capacitive spark discharge on the early flame kernel growth of premixed methane-air mixtures is investigated through electrical probing and optical diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Evaporation Characteristics of n-Heptane Droplet Streams in a Heated Air Channel Flow

An experimental study is presented on the evaporation of diluted droplet-laden two-phase jet flows within a heated air channel co-flow. In this study, n-heptane is pre-atomized by an ultrasonic nozzle to produce droplet cluster with a median diameter of about15μm, and a continuous cold air flow is applied to carry the fuel droplet cluster to emerge from a nozzle tube, producing a free turbulent jet of droplet stream. The droplet stream is then introduced as a central jet into a square-shaped channel with heated air co-flow for evaporation investigations. With flexibilities of the initial properties of droplet stream and surrounding conditions of channel flow, the axial evolution of droplet size is determined to characterize the evaporation behavior of n-heptane droplet stream under various boundary conditions. The equivalence ratios of droplet streams are varied by changing both the carrier-air flow rate and the fuel flow rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stratification on Ion Distribution in HCCI Combustion Using 3D-CFD with Detailed Chemistry

Ion current sensing, which usually employs a spark plug as its sensor to obtain feedback signal from different types of combustion in SI engines, may be applied to HCCI combustion sensing instead of a prohibitively expensive piezoelectric pressure transducer. However, studies showed that the ion current detected by a spark plug sensor is a localized signal within the vicinity of the sensor's electrode gap, being affected by conditions around it. To find out better and feasible ion probe positions, a 3D-CFD model with a detailed surrogate mechanism containing 1423 species and 6106 reactions was employed to study the effect of stratification on ion distribution in HCCI combustion. The simulation results indicate that the monitor probe 1, 8 and 9 are more stable and reliable than the others. IONmax and dIONmax are more accurate to estimate CA50 and dQmax respectively.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Brake System Control Strategy in Typical Transient Conditions

The control in transient conditions when hydraulic brake and regenerative brake switch mutually is the key technical issue about electric vehicle hybrid brake system, which has a direct influence on the braking feel of driver and vehicle braking comfort. A coordination control system has been proposed, including brake force distribution correction module and motor force compensation module. Brake force distribution correction module has fixed the distribution results in hydraulic brake force intervention condition, hydraulic brake force evacuation condition and regenerative brake force low speed evacuation condition. Motor compensation module has compensated hydraulic system with motor system, which has fast and accurate response, thus the response of whole hybrid system has been improved.
Technical Paper

UWB Location Algorithm Based on BP Neural Network

In order to solve the problem that in the traditional trilateral positioning algorithm, the final positioning error is large when there is a certain error in the measured three-sided distance, a UWB positioning algorithm based on Back Propagation (BP) neural network is proposed. The algorithm utilizes the fast learning characteristic and the ability of approximating any non-linear mapping of neural network, and realizes the location of the mobile label through the TOA measurement value provided by the base station and the BP neural network. By comparing the traditional trilateral positioning algorithm, the BP neural network algorithm based on four distance inputs and the BP neural network algorithm based on four distance inputs with trilateral positioning coordinates, it can be seen that the positioning error of traditional trilateral positioning algorithm is 30 cm, and the positioning error of the positioning algorithm based on the BP neural network proposed in this paper is 10 cm.
Technical Paper

Semantic Segmentation for Traffic Scene Understanding Based on Mobile Networks

Real-time and reliable perception of the surrounding environment is an important prerequisite for advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and automatic driving. And vision-based detection plays a significant role in environment perception for automatic vehicles. Although deep convolutional neural networks enable efficient recognition of various objects, it has difficulty in accurately detecting special vehicles, rocks, road pile, construction site, fence and so on. In this work, we address the task of traffic scene understanding with semantic image segmentation. Both driveable area and the classification of object can be attained from the segmentation result. First, we define 29 classes of objects in traffic scenarios with different labels and modify the Deeplab V2 network. Then in order to reduce the running time, MobileNet architecture is applied to generate the feature map instead of the original models.
Technical Paper

Camera-Radar Data Fusion for Target Detection via Kalman Filter and Bayesian Estimation

Target detection is essential to the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and automatic driving. And the data fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera could provide more accurate and complete information of targets and enhance the environmental perception performance. In this paper, a method of vehicle and pedestrian detection based on the data fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera is proposed to improve the target distance estimation accuracy. The first step is the targets data acquisition. A deep learning model called Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) is utilized for targets detection in consecutive video frames captured by camera and further optimized for high real-time performance and accuracy. Secondly, the coordinate system of camera and radar are unified by coordinate transformation matrix. Then, the parallel Kalman filter is used to track the targets detected by radar and camera respectively.
Technical Paper

Study on Lane Change Trajectory Planning Considering of Driver Characteristics

Automatic lane change of intelligent vehicles is a complex process. Besides of safety, feelings of the driver and passengers during the lane change are also very important. In this paper, a lane change trajectory planner is designed to generate an ideal collision-free trajectory to satisfy the driver’s preference. Various lane changing modes, gentle lane change, general lane change, radical lane change and personalized lane change, are designed to meet the needs of different passengers on vehicles simultaneously. In this paper, the condition of the two-lane change is studied. One vehicle is in front of the ego vehicle at the same lane and one is at the rear of the ego vehicle at the target lane. A trajectory planning method is then established based on constant speed offset and sine curve, vehicle distances and speed difference, etc. The key factors which can reflect drivers’ lane change characteristics are then acquired.
Technical Paper

Targets Location for Automotive Radar Based on Compressed Sensing in Spatial Domain

Millimeter wave automotive radar is one of the most important sensors in the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and autonomous driving system, which detects the target vehicles around the ego vehicle via processing transmitted and echo signals. However, the sampling rate of classical radar signal processing methods based on Nyquist sampling theorem is too high and the resolution of range, velocity and azimuth can’t meet the requirement of highly autonomous driving, especially azimuth. In spatial domain, targets are sparse distribution in the detection range of automotive radar. To solve these problems, the algorithm for targets location based on compressed sensing for automotive radar is proposed in this paper. Besides, the feasibility of the algorithm is verified through the simulation experiments of traffic scene. The range-doppler-azimuth model can be used to estimate the distance, velocity and azimuth of the target accurately.
Technical Paper

Research on Track Management of Multi-Target Tracking Based on Modified Fast Algorithm for Data Association

With the development of autonomous vehicle technology, there is an increasing tendency toward the application of intelligent sensors in environment-perception system on autonomous vehicle to assist vehicle in intelligent decision making relevant to autonomous driving. As for environment-perception system, a good track management method serves as the foundation, while multi-target tracking and multi-sensor data fusion are recognized as the key. In this paper, a track management method is proposed to deal with multi-target tracking based on the target-level data of multisource environmental sensors for autonomous vehicle. The track management includes four procedures as following: track initiation; point-track association; track update; track deletion. A modified fast algorithm for data association is applied in the point-track association procedure. Afterwards Kalman filter is implemented to update the track information of target. The algorithm has got through a simulation test.
Technical Paper

A Localization System for Autonomous Driving: Global and Local Location Matching Based on Mono-SLAM

The utilization of the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) technique was extended from the robotics to the autonomous vehicles for achieving the positioning. However, SLAM cannot obtain the global position of the vehicle but a relative one to the start. For sake of this, a fast and accurate system was proposed to obtain both the local position and the global position of vehicles based on mono-SLAM which realized the SLAM by using monocular camera with a lower cost and power consumption. Firstly, the rough latitude and longitude of current position was obtained by using common GPS without differential signal. Then, the Mono-SLAM operated on the consecutive video frames to generate the localization and local trajectory and its accuracy was further improved by utilizing the IMU information. After that, a piece of Map centered in the rough position obtained by common GPS was downloaded from the Open Street Map.
Journal Article

Prediction of Temperature Field Inside Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Similarity Theory

To accurately and efficiently predict the temperature fields inside a lithium-ion battery is key technology for the enhancement of battery thermal management and the improvement of battery performances. The dimensional analysis method is applied to derive similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients of battery interior temperature fields, based on the governing partial differential equations describing the three dimensional transient temperature field. To verify the correctness of similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients, 3D finite element models of battery temperature field are established with a prototype and scale model, on the assumption that the battery cell has single-layer structure and multi-layers structure separately. The simulation results show that the similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients are correct.