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Technical Paper

The System Identification for the Hydrostatic Drive System of Secondary Regulation Using Neural Networks

1996-10-01
962231
In this paper, the system identification theory and method using dynamic neural networks are presented, the multilayer feedforward networks employed, the backpropagation with adaptive learning rate algorithms proposed. Finally the comparision of network output with that of the hydrostatic drive system of secondary regulation is given, and output error, sum-squared error et al, or the results that embody the effect of system identification given sine input to it are provided.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicular Hydrostatic Energy Storage Transmission and Its Control System

1997-11-17
973179
Although Hydrostatic Transmission System (HTS) had been used in many places, such as machine tools, agriculture machinery, construction machinery, and vehicles, it had not been used in good performance. Twenty years ago many people began to design new hydrostatic transmission with higher efficiency. Hydrostatic Energy Storage Transmission System (HESTS) is one of new hydrostatic transmission system with higher efficiency. HESTS is more fit for being used in vehicle that is always running in undulating ground or starting and braking frequently. Construction of vehicular HESTS was analyzed, mathematical model of vehicular HESTS was established. The needed control strategies of vehicular HESTS were analyzed because there are many variables would be controlled in the new transmission system.
Technical Paper

Simulations of Key Design Parameters and Performance Optimization for a Free-piston Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1105
To develop a free-piston engine-alternator integrative power system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, the key design parameters, such as reciprocating mass of the piston assembly, compression ratio, the ignition timing, the engine fuel consumption rate and power output, are studied based on the simulation. The results show that, the system simulation model of the free piston engine can predict the in-cylinder pressure vs. the piston's displacement being accurate enough as the test results from reported reference. The model can be employed to optimize the design parameters and to predict the fuel economy and power output. It provides the methods and bases for the free piston engine design and predicting the main performance parameters' values.
Technical Paper

Whole Field Bonded Steel Tensile Test Using Digital Image Correlation System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0960
Adhesive bonding has many applications in the automotive industry. The single-lapped bonded joint is the most typically used among various bonding types. This paper presents experimental research for determining the strain field of the single-lapped joint under tensile loading. The materials for the joint are epoxy-based structural adhesive and low-carbon electrolytic zinc steel plate. In the study, a DIC (digital image correlation) system was adopted to measure the strain distribution of the bonded joint during a tensile test. The bonded steel coupons in the tensile test were prepared according to the ASTM standard. During the measurement, images of the coupon joint were taken before and after the deformation process. Then the DIC system measured the strain of bonded joint by comparing two consecutive images. The measured data from the DIC was compared to data taken simultaneously from a traditional extensometer.
Technical Paper

Damage Identification of Rear Axle Under Experimental Condition from Curvature Mode Change

2010-04-12
2010-01-0930
In this paper the approach of using modal parameters to detect and locate damage of automobile rear axle under experimental condition is explained. This method uses the changes in the curvature mode of the structure as the damage identification indicator to detect and locate damage. The curvature mode and the damage identification indicator are explained, the process of the identification is introduced. The method is demonstrated with a FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis on a plate under different damage conditions. And the indicator is improved with a weighting function. Then EMA (Experimental Modal Analysis) is conducted on a damaged and an undamaged rear axle of a vehicle to get the modal parameters for the damage identification indicator which later identifies and locates the damages, thus validating the introduced method.
Technical Paper

Stratified Mixture Formation and Combustion Process for Wall-guided Stratified-charge DISI Engines with Different Piston Bowls by Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0595
This paper presents the simulation of in-cylinder stratified mixture formation, spray motion, combustion and emissions in a four-stroke and four valves direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with a pent-roof combustion chamber by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The Extended Coherent Flame Combustion Model (ECFM), implemented in the AVL-Fire codes, was employed. The key parameters of spray characteristics related to computing settings, such as skew angle, cone angle and flow per pulse width with experimental measurements were compared. The numerical analysis is mainly focused on how the tumble flow ratio and geometry of piston bowls affect the motion of charge/spray in-cylinder, the formation of stratified mixture and the combustion and emissions (NO and CO₂) for the wall-guided stratified-charge spark-ignition DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Modeling and FEM Analysis of the Thermo-mechanical Dynamics of Ventilated Disc Brakes

2010-04-12
2010-01-0075
Prediction and analysis of the thermo-mechanical coupling behavior in friction braking system is very important for the design and application of vehicle brakes, such as brake judder, brake squeal, brake wear, brake cracks, brake fade. This paper aims to establish a macro-structural model of the thermo-mechanical dynamics of the ventilated disc brake with asymmetrical outer and inner disc thickness, taking into account the friction-velocity curve of the disc pad couple acquired by testing. On the basis of finite elements analysis of the model, the predictions of the thermo-mechanical responses of the brake disc are presented, including disc transient temperature field and normal stress in radial, circular and axial directions, disc lateral deformation and disc thickness variation. Numerical predictions of the disc surface temperature and later distortion are compared with experimental measurements obtained by thermocouples and non-contact displacement sensors.
Technical Paper

Research of Eliminating Method of Undesired Shifting for Vehicle with Dual Clutch Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-0485
The undesired shifting phenomenon(USP) occurs easily under the braking or climbing conditions etc., and its impact is the discomfort to the passengers or cause of vehicle's state contrary to the driver's intention, meanwhile, the wear of the clutch and synchronizer is increased, so their lifetime are greatly shortened. To the vehicle with dual clutch transmission (DCT), undesired shifting phenomenon will lead to frequent and unnecessary actuation of synchronizer for the use of pre-engagement synchronizer in the shifting control; therefore, its occurrence should be eliminated as far as possible. In this paper, the process of the undesired shifting of the vehicle with DCT is elaborated, then the generating cause of USP is described based on directed graph.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Model of Ti40 Alloy Sheet Based on DIC Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1427
Based on the experimental data of true stress-strain measured by DIC (Digital Image Correlation) combined with the data from a tensile test machine, the methodology for establishing a constitutive model for Ti40 alloy sheet is presented in this paper. The procedure is demonstrated by building the constitutive relationship for Ti40 alloy sheet. As the verification of the constitutive relationship, a force-displacement diagram is simulated by FEA (Finite Element Analysis). A comparison of force-displacement diagram obtained separately by FEA and the tensile test machine is made and the result shows that the method for establishing the constitutive relationship for Ti40 alloy sheet presented in this paper are reliable and considerately accurate.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Determination of Forming Limit Diagram Based on Digital Image Correlation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1421
In this paper, a new method for determining the forming limit diagram (FLD) of thin sheet metals, called DIC-Grid method, is proposed based on digital image correlation (DIC) technique. It's assumed that there exists one virtual grid with an initial diameter of 2.5mm, which is usually the same dimension as the grid in traditional circular grid analysis, close to the crack of specimen, and the limit strain point on FLD is determined by the deformation of this virtual grid. The DIC-Grid method has been compared with traditional circular grid analysis and the standard ISO/FDIS 12004-2 in Nakajima tests. The results show that the forming limit strains obtained by the newly proposed method are more stable and precise. Furthermore, DIC-Grid method can avoid the measurement error which exists in the circular grid analysis. Meanwhile, it overcomes the shortcomings of time-consuming data processing and non-applicable for unrealistic strain distribution in the method of ISO standard.
Technical Paper

On Chaos and Bifurcation in Nonlinear Driver-Vehicle System Probabilistic Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0522
The vehicle system is actually a strongly nonlinear system with stochastic parameters. In this paper, the nonlinearities of suspension, tire and seat are analyzed, and the nonlinear dynamics model of driver-vehicle system with 8 degrees of freedom (DOFs) is built. The bifurcation and chaotic motion of the deterministic system under Sinusoid excitations considering the time delay between the front and rear tires are studied. Then, the stochastic feature of the equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients of suspension, tire and seat are assumed to be the normal distribution, and the nonlinear model with random parameters is obtained. The nonlinear dynamics of stochastic nonlinear driver-vehicle system is analyzed and compared through numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

STATE OF HEALTH DETERMINATION OF LITHIUM ION CELLS IN AND OUTSIDE THE VEHICLE

2011-05-17
2011-39-7235
There is an enormous effort to implement safety functionality into battery systems to prevent any accidents with the poisonous and inflammable ingredients of the electrolytes and electrode materials. But not only the safety regulation for lithium ion batteries will be different in comparison to the home electronics application, also the operating strategy must be different to guaranty the required lifetime in the automotive industry up to 10-12 years. This paperwork will show an approach to get offline (on test benches) and/or online (installed inside the car) information regarding the current healthy and state inside the cell. As an approach modeling of physical effects by the help of electro impedance spectroscopy (EIS) will be applied.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Mini and Full Flow Burner Systems for Diesel Engine Aftertreatment under Low Temperature Conditions

2012-09-24
2012-01-1949
With introductions of stringent diesel engine emission regulations, the DOC and DPF systems have become the mainstream technology to eliminate soot particles through diesel combustion under various operation conditions. Urea-based SCR has been the mainstream technical direction to reduce NOx emissions. For both technologies, low-temperature conditions or cold start conditions pose challenges to activate DOC or SCR emission-reduction performance. To address this issue, mini or full flow burner systems may be used to increase exhaust temperature to reach DOC light-off or SCR initiation temperature by combustion of diesel fuel. In essence, the burner systems incorporate a fuel injector, spray atomization, proper fuel / air mixing mechanisms, and combustion control as independent heat sources.
Technical Paper

A Test Method and Simulation Study of PMMA Glazing on Motion Deviation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1001
For achieving vehicle light weighting, the motion deviation is calculated for substitution of PMMA glazing for inorganic glass. In this paper, a test method is proposed to measure and calculate the motion deviation of the dual-curvature glass. To simulate the dual-curvature glass, the torus surface is fitted with least square method according to the window frame data, which are measured by Coordinate Measuring Machine. By using this method, the motion deviation of PMMA glazing and inorganic glass can be calculated, which can not only validate the effectiveness of motion simulation, but also compare the performances. The results demonstrate that the performance of PMMA glazing is better than that of inorganic glass and the simulation results is validated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Global and Local Deformation Behaviors of Similar Laser Welded Joints using Digital Image Correlation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0832
Similar laser welded blanks with same material and same gauge have been extensive applied in automobile body for improving the material utilization and extending maximum coil size. It is known that, for TWBs with dissimilar material and thicknesses, the difference of material properties and/or thickness of the welded blanks, change of the material properties in the weld seam and heat-affected zones (HAZ) as well as location and orientation of the weld seam are reasons for reduced formability. However, the plastic deformation capacity of TWBs is reduced even when the material and thickness are the same. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the deformation behaviors of similar laser welded joints. Uniaxial tensile of five laser welded joints, with 90°,60°,45°,30°and 0°weld orientations, were tested by using optical measurement-DIC (Digital Image Correlation). Strain /strain ratio distribution and evolution of each joint was analyzed and compared with base material.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Modeling of Driveline System for EV Low-Frequency Flutter

2015-06-15
2015-01-2191
In view of the problem of low-frequency (less than 10Hz, such as 0.5Hz, 1.15Hz, 8Hz in this paper) longitudinal vibration exists in a pure electric vehicle, modeling methods of drive-line torsion vibration system are conducted. Firstly, dynamometer test is performed, signals of motor speed and seat rail acceleration are obtained, the frequency characteristics of flutter is determined using the order analysis and time frequency analysis. Then four types of modeling and analysis are investigated facing the drive-line torsion vibration problem, including single model without electromagnetic stiffness, branch model without electromagnetic stiffness, single model considering electromagnetic stiffness and branch model considering electromagnetic stiffness. The results show that, modeling taking into account the electromagnetic stiffness and branches can reflect more low-frequency characteristics helps to reveal the low-frequency longitudinal flutter of the researched electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

A New Narrowband Active Noise Control System in the Presence of Frequency Mismatch and its Application for Steady-State Blower Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2214
In order to reduce high-frequency harmonic noise produced by the blower in the auxiliary system of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), a narrowband active noise control (ANC) method instead of conventional passive mufflers is adopted since the blower demands clean air condition and expects good acoustic performance. However, in ANC practical applications, the frequency difference between reference signal and actual primary signal, i.e., frequency mismatch (FM), can significantly degrade the high-frequency performance of narrowband ANC system. In this paper, a new narrowband ANC system is proposed to compensate for the performance degeneration due to the existence of FM and improve noise reduction at high frequencies. The proposed system consists of two parts: the Filtered Error Least Mean Square (FELMS) algorithm filtering the primary signals at wide frequency range other than those at the targeted frequencies, and the FM removal algorithm proposed by Yegui Xiao.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Compound Power-Split Hybrid Transmission for Electric Drive

2015-04-14
2015-01-1214
A novel compound power-split hybrid transmission based on a modified Ravigneaux gear set is presented. The equivalent lever diagrams are used to investigate the electric operating modes for the hybrid powertrain, and then its dynamic and kinematic characteristics as well as efficiency characteristics are described in equations. A brake clutch mounted on the carrier shaft is proposed to enhance the electric driving efficiency for the hybrid transmission. Three types of electric operating mode are analyzed by the simplified combined lever diagrams and the system efficiency and torque characteristics for these electric operating modes are compared. A major influence on output torque of the hybrid transmission derived from the torque capability of motors and brake clutch is depicted.
Technical Paper

The Effect of High-Power Capacitive Spark Discharge on the Ignition and Flame Propagation in a Lean and Diluted Cylinder Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0707
Research studies have suggested that changes to the ignition system are required to generate a more robust flame kernel in order to secure the ignition process for the future advanced high efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In a typical inductive ignition system, the spark discharge is initiated by a transient high-power electrical breakdown and sustained by a relatively low-power glow process. The electrical breakdown is characterized as a capacitive discharge process with a small quantity of energy coming mainly from the gap parasitic capacitor. Enhancement of the breakdown is a potential avenue effectively for extending the lean limit of SI engine. In this work, the effect of high-power capacitive spark discharge on the early flame kernel growth of premixed methane-air mixtures is investigated through electrical probing and optical diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Evaporation Characteristics of n-Heptane Droplet Streams in a Heated Air Channel Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-0843
An experimental study is presented on the evaporation of diluted droplet-laden two-phase jet flows within a heated air channel co-flow. In this study, n-heptane is pre-atomized by an ultrasonic nozzle to produce droplet cluster with a median diameter of about15μm, and a continuous cold air flow is applied to carry the fuel droplet cluster to emerge from a nozzle tube, producing a free turbulent jet of droplet stream. The droplet stream is then introduced as a central jet into a square-shaped channel with heated air co-flow for evaporation investigations. With flexibilities of the initial properties of droplet stream and surrounding conditions of channel flow, the axial evolution of droplet size is determined to characterize the evaporation behavior of n-heptane droplet stream under various boundary conditions. The equivalence ratios of droplet streams are varied by changing both the carrier-air flow rate and the fuel flow rate.
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