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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

NVH Testing of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2001-04-30
2001-01-1543
The purpose of his paper is to further the understanding of NVH test techniques for hybrid electric powertrains. It addresses dynamometer testing specifically. Due to the nature of the hybrid electric function, which includes situations when the engine is not running as well as different ratios of torque for power component combinations, typical testing methods are not adequate. Hybrid electric testing requires unique test conditions, dyno control, instrumentation and analysis. This paper attempts to establish some test standards directed specifically to the data needs of hybrid electric power trains.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1595
Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Finite element simulation of drive shaft in truck/SUV frontal crash

2001-06-04
2001-06-0106
Drive shaft modelling effects frontal crash finite element simulation. A 35 mph rigid barrier impact of a body on frame SUV with an one piece drive shaft and a unibody SUV with a two piece drive shaft have been studied and simulated using finite element analyses. In the model, the drive shaft can take significant load in frontal impact crash. Assumptions regarding the drive shaft model can change the predicted engine motion in the simulation. This change influences the rocker @ B-pillar deceleration. Two modelling methods have been investigated in this study considering both joint mechanisms and material failure in dynamic impact. Model parameters for joint behavior and failure should be determined from vehicle design information and component testing. A body on frame SUV FEA model has been used to validate the drive shaft modeling technique by comparing the simulation results with crash test data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

2001-09-24
2001-01-3591
A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain with an Engine-Disconnecting Clutch

2002-03-04
2002-01-0930
Several types of hybrid-electric vehicles have been developed at Ford Research Laboratory. Among the parallel hybrid systems with a single electric motor, two types were studied. In the first type, the electric motor was attached directly to the crankshaft (mild hybrid) [1], to enable the engine start-stop and regeneration functions. In the second type (full hybrid) the electric motor was connected to the engine through the use of a clutch to allow electric launch of the vehicle and pure electric driving at low speeds. The full hybrid powertrain described in this paper uses a more powerful electric motor for enhanced regenerative braking and engine power assist. An engine-disconnecting clutch saves energy during both the electric propulsion and during vehicle braking. When the clutch is disengaged the engine is shut-off, which eliminates the energy otherwise spent on motoring the engine during electric propulsion.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

2005-10-24
2005-01-3862
A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

A New FEA Method for the Evaluation of a Body Joint

2001-03-05
2001-01-0758
A finite element analysis method has been developed to assess the design of an automobile body joint. The concept of the coefficient of joint stiffness and the force distribution ratio are proposed accordingly. The coefficient of joint stiffness reveals whether a joint is stiff enough compared to its joining components. In addition, these parameters can be used to estimate the potential and the effectiveness for any further improvement of the joint design. The modeling and analysis of the proposed process are robust. The coefficient of joint stiffness could be further developed to serve as the joint design target.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of HCCI Using a Single Cylinder Four-stroke SI Engine with Modified Valve Timing

2000-10-16
2000-01-2870
A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
Technical Paper

Correlating Stressed Environmental Testing of Structural Composites to Service

2001-03-05
2001-01-0094
A compact in-situ tensile stress fixture was designed for the study of the combined effects of stress and automotive environments on structural glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. With this fixture, a standardized 300 hour laboratory screening test was developed to compare the residual property loss of composite materials due to concurrent exposure to stress and environment. It is of great importance that the data gathered in the laboratory have correlation to on-vehicle (in-service) performance, and that both lab and real world data be taken with a test system (in-situ test fixtures) capable of providing accurate and consistent results under either test condition.
Technical Paper

Intra-Parcel Collision Model for Diesel Spray Simulations

2008-10-06
2008-01-2426
Multidimensional models that are used for engine computations must include spray sub-models when the fuel is injected into the cylinder in liquid form. One of these spray sub-models is the droplet interaction model, which is separated into two parts: first, calculation of a collision rate between drops, and second, calculation of the outcome once a collision has occurred. This paper focuses on the problem of calculating the collision rate between drops accurately. Computing the collision rate between drops or particles when they are non-uniformly distributed and sharp gradients are present in their distribution is a challenging task. Traditionally the collisions between parcels of drops have been computed using the same spatial grid as is used for the Eulerian gas-phase calculations. Recently it has been proposed to use a secondary grid for the collision rate calculation that is independent of the gas-phase grid, as is done in the NTC collision algorithm.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Modeling and FEM Analysis of the Thermo-mechanical Dynamics of Ventilated Disc Brakes

2010-04-12
2010-01-0075
Prediction and analysis of the thermo-mechanical coupling behavior in friction braking system is very important for the design and application of vehicle brakes, such as brake judder, brake squeal, brake wear, brake cracks, brake fade. This paper aims to establish a macro-structural model of the thermo-mechanical dynamics of the ventilated disc brake with asymmetrical outer and inner disc thickness, taking into account the friction-velocity curve of the disc pad couple acquired by testing. On the basis of finite elements analysis of the model, the predictions of the thermo-mechanical responses of the brake disc are presented, including disc transient temperature field and normal stress in radial, circular and axial directions, disc lateral deformation and disc thickness variation. Numerical predictions of the disc surface temperature and later distortion are compared with experimental measurements obtained by thermocouples and non-contact displacement sensors.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0415
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Methods for Determining Sheared Edge Formability

2011-04-12
2011-01-1062
Imposing tensile stress on an edge of a sheet metal blank is a common condition in many sheet metal forming operations, making edge formability a very important factor to consider. Because edge formability varies greatly among different materials, cutting methods (and their control parameters), it is very important to have access to an experimental technique that would allow for quick and reliable evaluation of edge formability for a given case. In this paper, two existing techniques are compared: the hole expansion test and the tensile test. It is shown that the hole expansion test might not be adequate for many cases, and is prone to overestimating the limiting strain, because the burr on the sheared edge is typically smaller than what is observed in production. The tensile test represents an effective alternative to the hole expansion test. Advantages and disadvantages of each case are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Ford GT Transaxle - Tailor Made in 2 Years

2004-03-08
2004-01-1260
This paper describes the rapid development of the Ford GT transmission, from concept phase to production, where the technical challenges involved are implicit in the specifications provided. It presents the steps taken at a project management level to expedite development, as well as the tools used to design and rate components at the design stage. Examples of concurrent engineering are given as well as management techniques used to predict and address key risks. In addition, details of analysis and test procedures are given, underlining their contribution to the rapid introduction of the transmission to the market place.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Vibration Studies of As-Installed Power Steering Pumps

2003-05-05
2003-01-1671
Pump whine as well as other NVH issues related to power steering system can become customer concerns at the vehicle level. In order to avoid that, proposed treatment of the pump structure and its installation on the engine should be performed. This is particularly important because most vane pumps have a wide range of excitation that can reach 1000 Hz (30th order @ 6000 rpm). This requires maximizing the ‘as installed’ frequencies of the pump to avoid coincidence with the engine and other FEAD harmonics.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Analysis Tool for Fixture Design Integrity Verification and Optimization

2002-03-04
2002-01-0132
Machining fixtures are used to locate and constrain a workpiece during a machining operation. To ensure that the workpiece is manufactured according to specified dimensions and tolerances, it must be appropriately located and clamped. Minimizing workpiece and fixture tooling deflections due to clamping and cutting forces in machining is critical to the machining accuracy. An ideal fixture design maximizes locating accuracy and workpiece stability, while minimizing displacements. The purpose of this research is to develop a method for modeling workpiece boundary conditions and applied loads during a machining process, analyze modular fixture tool contact area deformation and optimize support locations, using finite element analysis (FEA). The workpiece boundary conditions are defined by locators and clamps. The locators are placed in a 3-2-1 fixture configuration, constraining all degrees of freedom of the workpiece and are modeled using linear spring-gap elements.
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