Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Calculating Fluctuation Strength in Electric Motors

2001-04-30
2001-01-1588
In assessing the sound quality of electric motors (e.g., seat, mirror, and adjustable pedal motors), the sensation of Fluctuation Strength - a measure of intensity or frequency variation - has become important. For electric motors, it is typically caused by variation in the load, creating frequency modulation in the sound. An existing method for calculating Fluctuation Strength proved useful initially, but more extensive testing identified unacceptable performance. There were unacceptable levels of both false positives and false negatives. A new method is presented, which shows improved correlation with perceived fluctuation in sounds. Comparisons are made to the previous method and improvement is shown through examples of objective-subjective correlation for both seat motor sounds and adjustable pedal motor sounds. The new method is also shown to match subjective data from which the original measure of Fluctuation Strength was derived.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Instabilities and Power Flow in Brake Systems with Coupled Rotor Modes

2001-04-30
2001-01-1602
Recent investigations by others have indicated that the dynamic response of automotive brake rotors in the squeal frequency range involves the classic flexural modes as well as in-plane motion. While the latter set creates primarily in-plane displacements, there is coupling to transverse displacements that might produce vibrational instabilities. This question is investigated here by analyzing a modal model that includes two modes of the rotor and two modes of the pad and caliper assembly. Coupling between in-plane and transverse displacements is explicitly controlled. Results from this model indicate that the coupling does create vibrational instabilities. The instabilities, whose frequencies are in the squeal range, are characterized by power flow through the transverse motion of the rotor.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1608
Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1595
Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Finite element simulation of drive shaft in truck/SUV frontal crash

2001-06-04
2001-06-0106
Drive shaft modelling effects frontal crash finite element simulation. A 35 mph rigid barrier impact of a body on frame SUV with an one piece drive shaft and a unibody SUV with a two piece drive shaft have been studied and simulated using finite element analyses. In the model, the drive shaft can take significant load in frontal impact crash. Assumptions regarding the drive shaft model can change the predicted engine motion in the simulation. This change influences the rocker @ B-pillar deceleration. Two modelling methods have been investigated in this study considering both joint mechanisms and material failure in dynamic impact. Model parameters for joint behavior and failure should be determined from vehicle design information and component testing. A body on frame SUV FEA model has been used to validate the drive shaft modeling technique by comparing the simulation results with crash test data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

2001-09-24
2001-01-3591
A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

An Ultra-Light Thin Sliding Door Design - A Multi-Product Multi-Material Solution

2002-03-04
2002-01-0391
Sliding door designs are applied to rear side doors on vans and other large vehicles with a trend towards dual sliding doors with power operation. It is beneficial for the vehicle user to reduce the weight of and space occupied by these doors. Alcoa, in conjunction with Ford, has developed a multi-product, multi-material-based solution, which significantly reduces the cost of an aluminum sliding door and provides both consumer delight and stamping-assembly plant benefits. The design was successfully demonstrated through a concept readiness/technology demonstration program.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain with an Engine-Disconnecting Clutch

2002-03-04
2002-01-0930
Several types of hybrid-electric vehicles have been developed at Ford Research Laboratory. Among the parallel hybrid systems with a single electric motor, two types were studied. In the first type, the electric motor was attached directly to the crankshaft (mild hybrid) [1], to enable the engine start-stop and regeneration functions. In the second type (full hybrid) the electric motor was connected to the engine through the use of a clutch to allow electric launch of the vehicle and pure electric driving at low speeds. The full hybrid powertrain described in this paper uses a more powerful electric motor for enhanced regenerative braking and engine power assist. An engine-disconnecting clutch saves energy during both the electric propulsion and during vehicle braking. When the clutch is disengaged the engine is shut-off, which eliminates the energy otherwise spent on motoring the engine during electric propulsion.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurement of a Vehicle's Windshield Using Liquid Crystals

2002-03-04
2002-01-0221
The impingement of air jets on a vehicle's windshield is one parameter that determines the effectiveness of the defroster's system in freeing the windshield of frost and fog. Incompressible air jets impinge upon the inner surface of the windshield and create hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers which in turn control convective heat transfer. Therefore, understanding the heat transfer interaction between impinging air jets and an inclined windshield is of practical relevance. Experimental investigations on the temperature distribution are performed on the inner surface of the windshield for the purpose of obtaining local and average heat transfer coefficients. In this paper, the temperature distribution of a vehicle's windshield is investigated using liquid crystals. As a result, a temperature contour map is generated displaying local temperature values on the inner surface of the windshield.
Technical Paper

The Emerging Fabric of Seamless Mobility

2000-11-01
2000-01-C033
Consider this recent data about the "speed'' of the information age: In a sixty-month window beginning in the year 1995, the number of cellular phone subscribers increased from 90 million to 330 million, the number of people on the internet went from about 5 million to just under 200 million, and not surprisingly the number of websites grew from a few thousands to 50 million. Now further consider that almost every cellular phone subscriber is also an automobile user, be it as a driver or a passenger. A fabric of mobility soon emerges --- one that is formed by the meshing of the strands of information mobility with those of personal mobility. In this paper we explore a "new frontier'' --- a "territory'' on this multidimensional fabric that is defined by the demands of seamless mobility. The typical daily cycle of events in our lives involve many different modalities and time-phases of mobility. We examine the rapidly increasing demands of seamless mobility in this context.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Vehicle Side-Window Defrosting and Demisting Process

2001-03-05
2001-01-0289
The thermal comfort of passengers within a vehicle is often the main objective for the climate control engineer; however, the need to maintain adequate visibility through the front and side windows of a vehicle is a critical aspect of safe driving. This paper compares the performance of the side window defrosting and demisting mechanism of several current model vehicles. The study highlights the drawbacks of current designs and points the way to improved passive defrosting mechanisms. The investigation is experimental and computational. The experiments are carried out using full-scale current vehicle models. The computational study, which is validated by the experiments, is used to perform parametric investigation into the side window defrosters performance. The results show that the current designs of the side-defroster nozzles give maximum airflow rates in the vicinity of the lower part of the window, which yields unsatisfactory visibility.
Technical Paper

Conditions for Incipient Windshield Fogging and Anti-Fog Strategy for Automatic Climate Control

2001-03-05
2001-01-0583
This paper describes a strategy, suitable for use in a climate control ATC (Automatic Temperature Controller) for predicting the onset or existence of fog (or misting) conditions and automatically taking action to avoid or reduce such conditions. Two variables currently measured by the ATC, cabin air temperature and ambient (outside) temperature are combined with cabin air relative humidity information provided by an additional sensor to allow the calculation of a degree of likelihood of windshield/window fogging. As fogging conditions are approached, a staged alteration of climate control strategy can relieve or even avoid altogether windshield fogging.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Performance between Several Vehicle Windshield Defrosting and Demisting Mechanisms

2001-03-05
2001-01-0582
The safety and comfort aspects of passenger cars are significant sales argument and have become a topic of rising importance during the development process of a new car. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of several current model vehicles, highlight the drawbacks of current defrosting/demisting systems and point the way to improved passive mechanisms. The investigation is experimental. The experiments are carried out using full-scale current vehicle models. The results show that the current designs of the defroster nozzle give maximum airflow rates in the vicinity of the lower part of the windshield, which decrease gradually towards the upper parts of the windshield. This hinders and limits the vision of the driver, particularly at the top of the windshield, which can be uncomfortable and indeed dangerous.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Warm Forming Assisted Hemming to Study the Effect of Process Parameters on Product Quality

2007-04-16
2007-01-0420
Current trends in the auto industry requiring tighter dimensional specifications combined with the use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum, are a challenge for the traditional manufacturing processes. The hemming process, a sheet metal bending operation used in the manufacturing of car doors and hoods, poses problems meeting tighter dimensional tolerances. Hemming is the final operation that is used to fasten the outer panel with the inner panel by folding the outer panel over the inner panel. Roll in/out is one of the main quality concerns with hemming, and keeping it under tolerance is a high priority issue for the auto manufacturers. Current hemming process technology, given the mechanical properties of current materials, has reached its saturation limit to deliver consistent dimensional quality to satisfy customers and at the same time meet government standards.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

2005-10-24
2005-01-3862
A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2005-04-11
2005-01-0542
A co-operative program initiated by the Automotive Aluminum Alliance and supported by USAMP continues to pursue the goal of establishing an in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion test for finished aluminum auto body panels that provides a good correlation with in-service performance. The program is organized as a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee. Initially a large reservoir of test materials was established to provide a well-defined and consistent specimen supply for comparing test results. A series of laboratory procedures have been conducted on triplicate samples at separate labs in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the various lab tests. Exposures at OEM test tracks have also been conducted and results of the proving ground tests have been compared to the results in the laboratory tests. Outdoor tests and on-vehicle tests are also in progress. An optical imaging technique is being utilized for evaluation of the corrosion.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of Brake Friction Coefficients

2000-10-01
2000-01-2753
Friction behavior is one of the most critical factors in brake system design and performance. For up-front design and system modeling it is desirable to be able to describe a lining's frictional behavior as a function of the local conditions, such as contact pressure, temperature and sliding speed. Typically, frictional performance is assessed using brake dynamometer testing of full-scale hardware, and an average friction value is used during brake system development. This traditional approach yields an average brake friction coefficient that is hardware-dependent and fails to capture in-stop friction variation; it is also unavailable in advance of component testing, ruling out true up-front design and prediction. To address these shortcomings, a scaled inertial brake dynamometer was used to determine the frictional characteristics of candidate lining materials.
X