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Technical Paper

Brake Judder Induced Steering Wheel Vibration: Experiment, Simulation and Analysis

The prevention and control of brake judder and its various negative effects has been a key target of vehicle production. One of the effects is the steering wheel vibration during vehicle braking. Experimental and theoretical investigation into “steering wheel vibration due to brake judder” is extensively presented in this paper. The vehicle road test is carried out under controlled braking conditions. During the test, the accelerations of brake caliper assembly, suspension low and upper control arm, steering arm, tie rod and steering wheel, left and right wheel rotary speed, are measured by a multi-channel data acquisition system. The data processing focuses on order tracking analysis and transfer path analysis to work out the related resonant components. A disc brake assembly, with deliberately designed disc thickness variation and surface run-out combinations, is tested on a brake dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Crevice on Transient HC Emissions of First Firing Cycle at Cold Start on LPG SI Engine

By changing the top-land radial clearance, this paper presents the effect of the piston crevice on the transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure and instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. The results show that increasing 50% crevice volume leads to 25% increase of HC emissions in the lean region and 18% increase of HC emissions in the rich region, however, the 50% increase of crevice volume contributes to 32% decease of HC emissions in the stable combustion region. For LPG SI engine, the HC emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start are relatively low in a wide range of the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Elementary Investigation into Road Simulation Experiment of Powertrain and Components of Fuel Cell Passenger Car

It is very important to investigate how road irregularity excitation will affect the durability, reliability, and performance degradation of fuel cell vehicle powertrain and its key components, including the electric motor, power control unit, power battery package and fuel cell engine system. There are very few published literatures in this research area. In this paper, an elementary but integrated experimental work is described, including the real road load sample on proving ground, road load reproduction on vibration test rig, total vehicle road simulation test and key components vibration tests. Remote parameter control technology is adopted to reproduce the real road load on road simulator and six-degree-of-freedom vibration table, which is used respectively for total vehicle and components vibration tests.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Wasted Cooking Oil

In this paper, the characteristics of performance and emissions of diesel and biodiesel blends are studied in a four-cylinder DI engine employing common rail injection system. The results show that engine output power is further reduced and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with the increase of the blend concentration. B100 provides average reduction by 8.6% in power and increase by 11% in BSFC. With respect to the emissions, although NOx emissions were increased with increasing the blend concentration, the increase depends on the load. Filter smoke number is reduced with increasing the blend concentration. At the same time, NO, NO2 and other specific emissions are also investigated. In addition, difference of performance and emission between standard parameters of ECU and modified parameters of ECU is investigated for B10 and B20 based on same output power. The results show that NOx emission and FSN are still lower than baseline diesel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Brake Noise Mechanism Incorporating Nonlinear Effects and Complex Eigenvalue Extraction

Numerical simulation of instabilities of brake systems based on complex mode analysis is presented in this paper. The theoretical analysis shows that the friction-induced unsymmetrical system stiffness matrix results in instability, and nonlinear static analysis plays a key role in the overall analysis. The frictional study shows how unstable mode occurs, in addition to that the nonlinear effects are taken into considerations and the one variable regression function is employed to set up the relative predict functions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Particle Number and Size Distribution of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueling with Alternative Blended Diesel Fuels

An EURO 3 certified common rail diesel engine was fueled with pure petroleum diesel (EURO 4 standard) and three different alternative blended diesel fuels, 10% biodiesel blended diesel (B10), 10% gas to liquid blended diesel (G10) and 10% water emulsified diesel (E10). Tests were performed at different engine speeds and load states. Particle number concentration and size distribution data were obtained from an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). Over all the working conditions, total particle and nucleation mode particle number concentration among these fuels from high to low were in this order: B10, E10, pure diesel and G10. Proportions for nucleation mode particle over all the operating states in that order were 89%, 82%, 59% and 66%. Particle size distributions of B10 and E10 presented bimodal logarithmic distributions with outstanding nucleation mode peaks at all working conditions.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a DI Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Soybean Oil

Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel blends (soybean methyl ester) were studied in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) engine at different loads and a constant speed. The results show that NOx emission and fuel consumption are increased with increasing biodiesel percentage. Reduction of smoke opacity is significant at higher loads with a higher biodiesel ratio. Compared with the baseline diesel fuel, B20 (20% biodiesel) has a slight increase of NOx emission and similar fuel consumption. Smoke emission of B20 is close to that of diesel fuel. Results of combustion analysis indicate that start of combustion (SOC) for biodiesel blends is earlier than that for diesel. Higher biodiesel percentage results in earlier SOC. Earlier SOC for biodiesel blends is due to advanced injection timing from higher density and bulk modulus and lower ignition delay from higher cetane number.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start

The First Firing Cycle (FFC) is very important at cold-start. Misfiring of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. This paper presents an investigation of characteristics of transient NO emissions in a small LPG SI engine with electronic gaseous injection system. To determine the optimal excess air coefficient ( λ=[A/F]/[A/F]stoic) of the first firing cycle, the emission of instantaneous NO was proposed as a useful criterion to judge if the combustion is occurred or not. A fast response NO detector- Cambustion fNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence's (CLD) method, has been employed to measure continuous, transient emissions of NO during the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure, instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine and engine-out HC emissions were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Particle-Bound PAHs Emission from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Fuel

Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions in the exhaust from a heavy duty diesel engine with biodiesel fuel were studied, and the emission characteristics of PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in PM were highlighted. In the experiment, pure diesel fuel and B10 (a blend of diesel and biodiesel fuels with the volume ratio of 9 to 1) fuel were chosen. The study shows that, compared to the pure diesel, the emissions of PM, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and PAHs from the heavy duty diesel engine decrease when the engine burns B10 fuel, and the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission slightly increases, while the unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions also decline. Among the detected 12 kinds of PAHs, emission concentrations of 10 kinds of PAHs from the engine with B10 descend. Especially Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent toxicity (BEQ) analysis results show that the BEQ of B10 fuel decreases by 15.2% compared to pure diesel.
Technical Paper

A Method of Acceleration Order Extraction for Active Engine Mount

The active engine mount (AEM) is developed in automotive industry to improve overall NVH performance. The AEM is designed to reduce major-order signals of engine vibration over a broad frequency range, therefore it is of vital importance to extract major-order signals from vibration before the actuator of the AEM works. This work focuses on a method of real-time extraction of the major-order acceleration signals at the passive side of the AEM. Firstly, the transient engine speed is tracked and calculated, from which the FFT method with a constant sampling rate is used to identify the time-related frequencies as the fundamental frequencies. Then the major-order signals in frequency domain are computed according to the certain multiple relation of the fundamental frequencies. After that, the major-order signals can be reconstructed in time domain, which are proved accurate through offline simulation, compared with the given signals.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Criterion Research Based on Phase Plane Method

In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish the vehicle yaw stability criterion based on the sideslip angle-yaw rate (β-r) phase plane method. First, nonlinear two degrees of freedom vehicle analysis model is established by adopting the Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model. Then, according to the model in the Matlab/Simulink environment, the β-r phase plane is gained. Emphatically, the effects of different driving conditions (front wheels steering angle, road adhesion coefficient and speed) on the stability boundaries of the phase plane are analyzed. Through a large number of simulation analysis, results show that there are two types of phase plane: curve stability region and diamond stability region, and the judgment method of the vehicle stability domain type under different driving conditions is solved.
Technical Paper

Design and Research of Micro EV Driven by In-Wheel Motors on Rear Axle

As is known to all, the structure of the chassis has been greatly simplified as the application of in-wheel motor in electric vehicle (EV) and distributed control is allowed. The micro EV can alleviate traffic jams, reduce the demand for motor and battery capacity due to its small size and light weight and accordingly solve the problem that in-wheel motor is limited by inner space of the wheel hub. As a result, this type of micro EV is easier to be recognized by the market. In the micro EV above, two seats are side by side and the battery is placed in the middle of the chassis. Besides, in-wheel motors are mounted on the rear axle and only front axle retains traditional hydraulic braking system. Based on this driving/braking system, distribution of braking torque, system reliability and braking intensity is analyzed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Speed Tracking Control for All-Terrain Vehicle Considering Road Slope and Saturation Constraint of Actuator

In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
Technical Paper

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Fault Rapid Diagnosis Method Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

Water management is a key research direction for the performance and lifetime of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks. The paper is aimed to develop an online fault diagnosis method that distinguishes different degrees of flooding and drying within a fuel cell stack by unobservable variables. In our research, the equivalent circuit model is established and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is utilized. The mathematical methods are used to extract the fault features. Fuzzy C-means is used to classify the selected features and the diagnostic rules are automatically extracted from the data. Through verification, the interpretability and computational efficiency of the proposed method are achieved.
Technical Paper

Virtual Co-Simulation Platform for Test and Validation of ADAS and Autonomous Driving

Vehicles equipped with one or several functions of Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS) and autonomous driving (AD) technology are more mature and prevalent nowadays. Vehicles being smarter and driving being easier is an unstoppable trend. In the near future, intelligent vehicles will be mass produced and running on the road. However, before the mass-production of intelligent vehicles, a lot of experimental tests and validations need to be carried out to insure the safety and reliability of ADAS and AD technology. Although the road test of real vehicles is the most reliable and accurate test method, it cannot meet the need of rapid development of technology research due to high time and financial cost. Therefore, a high-efficient design and evaluation methodology for ADAS and AD development and test is a must. In this paper, a virtual co-simulation platform based on MATLAB/Simulink, OpenModelica and Unity 3D game engine (MOMU) is proposed.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification for One-Dimension Fuel Cell Model Using GA-PSO Algorithm

When studying on how to identify the proton exchange membrane fuel cell model parameters accurately and quickly, the model frequently used is a lumped parameter model. Compared to this kind of model, one-dimensional dynamic proton exchange membrane fuel cell model can correlate the physical parameters with output characteristics of fuel cell to predict the effects of design parameters, materials and environmental conditions, thus reducing the need for experimentation. However, there is little literature about parameter identification for one-dimensional dynamic models currently. In this paper, a one-dimension dynamic proton exchange membrane fuel cell model with many assumptions for reducing the complexity of calculation is realized in Matlab-Simulink environment. The model consists of five interacting subsystems.
Technical Paper

Study on Air Pressure-Flow Decoupling Control in Fuel Cell System Based on Feedforward Algorithm

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is considered to be one of the ideal replacement for conventional Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) due to its zero emission, low operating temperature and high power density. The high-pressure PEMFC system has become the future development direction because the higher gas pressure can effectively improve the performance and power density of stack. However, the high gas pressure can lead to the damage of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and even the failure of fuel cell stack. As the air supply system is a nonlinear system, the flow and pressure have a strong coupling relation. For this problem, firstly, the mathematical model of air supply system is established in MATLAB/Simulink. Then a dual-loop control strategy is used in controller.
Technical Paper

Durability Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells under Open-Circuit Voltage

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are a good candidate for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) due to their high efficiency, high power density and zero-emission. However, the lifetime is one of the main barriers to overcome before their commercialization. The durability testing methods for PEMFCs are main include electrocatalyst cycle, catalyst support cycle, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) chemical stability, membrane mechanical cycle and so on. In addition, there is little research about MEA chemical stability test, which applies a continuous open-circuit voltage (OCV) to produce more free radicals and these will have a bad influence on PEMFCs. Based on this, the durability of PEMFC was studied under OCV operation at 30% relative humidity (RH), 90 °C and 150 kPa inlet pressure. The electrochemical performances such as in-situ cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltage (LSV) and cell polarization were used to evaluate the durability of PEMFC.