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Technical Paper

Challenge to the Diesel Engine Lubrication with Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1978
A study of diesel fuel as a lubricant for diesel engines was conducted with the aim of dramatically reducing engine friction and eliminating the need to change the lubricating oil. A prototype single-cylinder engine modified for diesel fuel lubrication was made, and it was confirmed that firing operation is possible. Piston friction during the firing operation was reduced by modifying the shape of the cylinder liner surface to improve the retention of the lubricating oil. The study produced valid findings concerning engine lubrication, not only with diesel fuel, but also with ultra-low viscosity oil.
Technical Paper

Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

2007-07-23
2007-01-1977
In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines. This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features. For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Twenty-Year Review of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites at Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

2007-04-16
2007-01-1017
More than twenty years have passed since we invented polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN), in which only a few wt.-% of silicate is randomly and homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix. When molded, these nanocomposites show superior properties compared to pristine polymers such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, heat distortion temperature, gas barrier property, and so on. The number of papers on PCN has increased rapidly in recent years, reaching over 500 only in 2005. As the pioneers of the new technology, we will review its history highlighting our works. Epoch-making events of PCN are as follows: In 1985, The first PCN, nylon 6-clay hybrid (NCH), was invented. In 1987, NCH was first presented at the ACS Fall Meetings. In 1989, NCH was presented at the MRS Fall Meetings, firing PCN. In 1989, Toyota launched cars equipped with a NCH part. In 1996, Clay was found to cause a memory effect in liquid crystals.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1135
In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D.I. Engines - Precise Analyses and Evaluation of Diesel Fuel

2000-10-16
2000-01-2882
Precise analytical methods for characterizing diesel fuel yielding the lowest particulate emissions were developed. The methods consist of preparative-scale high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), analytical-scale HPLC, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (13C-NMR). A diesel fuel was first separated into an aliphatic fraction and an aromatic fraction by semipreparative-scale HPLC. Then, the aliphatic fraction was analyzed by FIMS and the spectrum was compared with that of the whole fuel. The aromatic fraction was analyzed by analytical-scale HPLC to obtain the chromatogram of the aromatic hydrocarbons with a high S/N. In addition to these analyses, the fuel was analyzed by 13C-NMR to obtain the concentration of the carbon atoms of the straight chain, branched chain and aromatic-ring in hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

On-Board Estimation of Vehicle Weight By Optimizing Signal Processing

2006-04-03
2006-01-1489
The performances of some vehicle control systems are influenced by changes in the weight of the vehicle. In these systems, it is important to be able to estimate the weight without the need for special sensors. When we use physical models to do this, we have to provide estimates for two or more unknown parameters. In addition, since such a method is influenced by disturbances in the measured signals, it is difficult to maintain an acceptable level of accuracy. So, after analyzing the physical phenomena, we developed a new method that eliminates the influence of the disturbances from the measured signals and constructed an estimation system that has a minimum number of unknown parameters that was capable of providing a more accurate estimate of a vehicle weight. This method was applied to the braking force control of an automatic transmission and its efficacy was verified.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 1. Analysis and Test of Nylon and GTL Diesel Fuel Before and After Immersion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3326
The effect of GTL diesel fuel on organic materials used in fuel delivery systems of vehicles was investigated. Specimens made from 16 kinds of organic materials were immersed in GTL diesel fuels synthesized at Refinery-A and Refinery-B (referred to as GTL-A and GTL-B, respectively) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that elongation of the nylon sample immersed in GTL-A was extremely small, about 4% of that of untreated nylon. In the light of this finding, the GTL diesel fuels and nylons before and after immersion test were analyzed in detail using about 20 analysis methods to determine the cause for poor elongation. The following points were found. (1) GTL-A consisted of low molecular-weight paraffins. (2) GTL-A had low molecular-weight i-paraffins. (3) The nylon immersed in GTL-A contained low molecular-weight paraffins. (4) The paraffins in the nylon immersed in GTL-A were richer in i-paraffins than the original GTL-A.
Technical Paper

A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

2007-04-16
2007-01-0176
Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level.
Technical Paper

2-D Temperature Measurements of Unburned Gas Mixture in an Engine by Two-line Excitation LIF Technique

2006-10-16
2006-01-3336
Two-line excitation LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence) technique for 2-dimensional temperature measurements in an engine cylinder before ignition is presented. From the fundamental examinations, the combination of toluene tracer with a pair of excitation lines of 248nm and 266nm has been selected because of the high LIF intensity ratio and closer excitation wavelengths. In-cylinder thermometry is conducted using a visualized single cylinder spark ignition engine both in PFI (port-fuel-injection) and DI (direct-injection) operation. The accuracy of this technique is determined through the homogeneous PFI experiment. Temperature and fuel distribution in unburned mixture are measured simultaneously in DI operation. It exists a strong correlation between equivalence ratio and temperature inside the mixture. Temperature in the fuel rich region is lower than in the fuel lean region.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision System for Advanced Vehicle Safety System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0405
In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
Technical Paper

Hybrid System Development for High-Performance All Wheel Drive Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0296
The original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) was installed in the Prius and was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car. Since then, THS has been continuously improved. In 2003 THS-II (marketed as Hybrid Synergy Drive [HSD]), was installed in a new larger Prius. In 2006 HSD was installed in a Rear Wheel Drive Vehicle: the LEXUS GS450h. This system achieved both 4.5-liter class power performance and compact class fuel economy with outstanding emissions performance. In 2007, this system is expanded to a mechanical all-wheel-drive(AWD) in the LEXUS LS600hL(with new V8 engine). This paper will explain this hybrid system which achieved both V12 class power performance and mid-size class fuel economy, while meeting the most stringent emission standard SULEV as a full-size vehicle.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0028
A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Lateral Grip Margin Based on Self-aligning Torque for Vehicle Dynamics Enhancement

2004-03-08
2004-01-1070
It is well known that the self-aligning torque decreases before lateral force is saturated. Focusing on this self-aligning torque change, an estimation method has been developed to detect the friction condition between steered wheels and road surface before the lateral force reaches the friction limit. The lateral grip margin (LGM) is defined based on the self-aligning torque change, which is obtained using the EPS torque and motor current information. The LGM is theoretically analyzed based on the tire model and experimentally verified through the full-scale vehicle test. Moreover, the estimated LGM is applied for the chassis control systems to improve the vehicle dynamics performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Deodorant Filter for Diesel Smell

2004-03-08
2004-01-1384
One of typical outcome of the desire for increasing passenger comfort is that especially for deodorant efficiency. Since customers are becoming so sensitive about cabin odor, development of more effective deodorant filter is strongly required. Out side of vehicle, which most being disliked is diesel odor, therefore, analysis on this diesel gas and investigation to identity the ingredient for the main cause of the strong odor were executed, and found that acetaldehyde gas is the one. Therefore, identification of the chemical that adsorb acetaldehyde gas with being impregnated in activated carbon was required, since activated carbon itself does not have ability of adsorbing acetaldehyde gas, and finally found appropriate chemical, vitamin Bx. At the end of this report, sensory evaluation result by twenty panelists with deodorant type cabin air filter impregnated with vitamin Bx, and its efficiency for deodorant will be shown at the end of this report.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction Behavior on Catalysts With Non-Thermal Plasma in Simulated Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

2004-06-08
2004-01-1833
NOx reduction activity in an oxidizing exhaust gas was significantly improved by discharging non-thermal plasma and catalysts (plasma assisted catalysis). We investigated effective catalyst for plasma assisted catalysis in view of hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction(HC-SCR). Plasma assist was effective for γ-alumina and alkali or alkaline earth metals loaded zeolite and γ-alumina showed the highest NOx conversion among these catalysts. On the other hand, Plasma assist was not effective for Cu-ZSM-5 and Pt loaded catalyst. The NOx conversion for the plasma assisted γ-alumina decreased by formation of a deposit on the catalyst below 400°C. It is shown that indium loading on γ-alumina improved the NOx reduction activity and suppressed the degradation of the NOx reduction activity at 300°C with plasma assist.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2098
A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1061
In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1727
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Optical Analysis and Modelling of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1728
This study models short circuits and blow-outs of spark channels. The short circuit model assumes that a spark channel is short-circuited between two arbitrary locations when the electric potential difference between the two locations exceeds the voltage which enables electrical insulation breakage in-between. The threshold voltage can be raised by increasing the distance between the two locations and decreasing the discharge current. Discharge current, in this model, represents the influence of both the spread and the number of electrically charged particles, i.e., electrons and positive ions, distributed near the two locations. Meanwhile, the blow-out model assumes that a strong flow diffuses electrons and positive ions in the spark channel, and consequently the discharge blows out.
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