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Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Variation in Nerve Fiber Strain in Brain Tissue Subjected to Uniaxial Stretch

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most frequent type of closed head injury involved in vehicular accidents, and is characterized by structural and functional damage of nerve fibers in the white matter that may be caused by their overstretch. Because nerve fibers in the white matter have an undulated network-like structure embedded in the neuroglia and extracellular matrix, and are expected to be much stiffer than other components, the strain in the nerve fiber is not necessarily equal to that in the white matter. In this study, the authors have measured strain of the nerve fibers running in various directions in porcine brain tissue subjected to uniaxial stretch and compared them with global strain (tissue strain). The nerve fiber strain had a close correlation with their direction, and was smaller than surrounding global strain.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Based on Human Sensitivity (Second Report) -A Study of Cornering Feel-

Vehicle body movements that occur during cornering have a strong influence on the evaluation of ride and handling. As a first step, we analyze subjective comments from trained drivers and find that the sense of vision played a major part in cornering feel. As a result of quantitative evaluations, we hypothesize that smaller time lag between roll angle and pitch angle made cornering feel better. We perform a human sensitivity evaluation, which confirmed this hypothesis. Given this result, we derive analytical equations for the roll center kinematics and the damping characteristics, in order to find a theoretical condition for the time lag of 0sec (giving a good cornering feel). We verify this by experiment.
Technical Paper

Hybrid System Development for High-Performance All Wheel Drive Vehicle

The original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) was installed in the Prius and was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car. Since then, THS has been continuously improved. In 2003 THS-II (marketed as Hybrid Synergy Drive [HSD]), was installed in a new larger Prius. In 2006 HSD was installed in a Rear Wheel Drive Vehicle: the LEXUS GS450h. This system achieved both 4.5-liter class power performance and compact class fuel economy with outstanding emissions performance. In 2007, this system is expanded to a mechanical all-wheel-drive(AWD) in the LEXUS LS600hL(with new V8 engine). This paper will explain this hybrid system which achieved both V12 class power performance and mid-size class fuel economy, while meeting the most stringent emission standard SULEV as a full-size vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5th Percentile Female

Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50th percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5th percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0ϐ (Kimpara et al., 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al., 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Transient Response Based on Human Sensitivity

Grip feeling is an important facet in vehicle dynamics evaluation from a driver satisfaction and enjoyment standpoint. To improve grip feeling, we analyzed the subjective comments from test driver's about grip feeling and an evaluated human sensitivity to lateral motion. As a result, we found that drivers evaluate transient grip feeling according to the magnitude of lateral jerk. Next, we analyzed what vehicle parameters affect lateral jerk by using theoretical equations. As a result, we found that cornering power is an important parameter, especially the cornering power of rear tires as they can be create larger lateral jerk than can front tires.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts

Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling of Brain Parenchyma Taking Account of Strain Rate Dependency with Anisotropy and Application to Brain Injury Analyses

A reduction in brain disorders owing to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head impacts in traffic accidents is needed. However, the details of the injury mechanism still remain unclear. In past analyses, brain parenchyma of a head finite element (FE) model has generally been modeled using simple isotropic viscoelastic materials. For further understanding of TBI mechanism, in this study we developed a new constitutive model that describes most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and the characteristic features of the unloading process. Validation of the model was performed against several material test data from the literature with a simple one-element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and validated against post-mortem human subject (PMHS) test data about brain displacements and intracranial pressures during head impacts.
Journal Article

Smart Lighting for Enhancing Perception of Pedestrians based on Visual Properties

We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Spatio-Temporal Frequency Characteristics Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity for Smart Lighting

This study aims at the development of a projection pattern that is capable of shortening the time required by a driver to perceive a pedestrian at night when a vehicle’s high beams are utilized. Our approach is based on the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatiotemporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency varies depending on environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are several applications that utilize the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. For example, the National Television System Committee (NTSC) television format takes into consideration low-sensitivity visual characteristics. In contrast, our approach utilizes high-sensitivity visual characteristics based on the assumption that the higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequencies will correlate more effectively with shorter perception times.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for Verbal Interface while Driving from the Viewpoint of Safety

This study proposes an evaluation method for a verbal interface while driving. In this method, the reaction time is measured and the rate of the delayed reaction time trial is used as an index. We have designed a new reaction time test procedure that contains stimulus, perception, attention, choice and response. Based on results of an actual vehicle experiment, we indicate that our method has better examination capability than using the average reaction time as an index and that we can find the time that tends to delay the reaction during a verbal task by processing the delayed reaction time trial.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder

Previous studies have hypothesized that the shoulder may be used to absorb some impact energy and reduce chest injury due to side impacts. Before this hypothesis can be tested, a good understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder is critical for occupant protection in side impact. However, existing crash dummies and numerical models are not designed to reproduce the kinematics and kinetics of the human shoulder. The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder in side impact. Basic anthropometric data of the human shoulder used to develop the skeletal and muscular portions of this model were taken from commercial data packages. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Head and Neck Response During Side Impact

Numerical analyses of head and neck response during side impact are presented in this paper. A mathematical human model for side impact simulation was developed based on previous studies of other researchers. The effects of muscular activities during severe side impact were analyzed with the use of this model. This study shows that the effect of muscular activities is significant especially if the occupant is prepared to resist the impact. This result suggests that the modeling of muscles is important for the simulation of real accident situation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Lower Extremity for Analyses of Automotive Crash Injuries

A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed to predict lower extremity injuries in full frontal and offset frontal impact. The model included 30bones from femur to toes. Each bone was modeled using crushable solid elements for the orbicular bone and damageable shell elements for the cortical bone. The models of the long bones for the lower extremities were validated against data obtained from quasi-static 3-pointbending tests by Yamada (1970). The ankle, knee and hip joints were modeled as bone-to-bone contacts and included major ligaments and tendons. The ankle model was validated against data obtained from quasi-staticdorsiflexion, inversion and eversion tests by Petit et al. (1996) and against data obtained from dynamic impactcadaveric tests by Kitagawa et al. (1998). The possibility of using this model to predict injuries was discussed.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Localized Spine Deformation and Cervical Vertebral Motions for Low Speed Rear Impacts Using Human Volunteers

It is important to more clearly identify the relationship among the ramping-up motion, straightening of the whole spine, and cervical vertebrae motion in order to clarify minor neck injury mechanism. The aim of the current study is to verify the influence of the change of the spine configuration on human cervical vertebral motion and on head/neck/torso kinematics under low speed rear-end impacts. Seven healthy human volunteers participated in the experiment under the supervision of an ethics committee. Each subject sat on a seat mounted on a sled that glided backward on rails and simulated actual car impact acceleration. Impact speeds (4, 6, and 8 km/h), and seat stiffness (rigid and soft) without headrest were selected. During the experiment, the change of the spine configuration (measured by a newly developed spine deformation sensor with 33 paired set strain gauges and placed on the skin) and the interface load-pressure distribution was recorded.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Journal Article

Improvement in Vehicle Motion Performance by Suppression of Aerodynamic Load Fluctuations

This study focuses on fluctuations in the aerodynamic load acting on a hatchback car model under steady-state conditions, which can lead to degeneration of vehicle motion performance due to excitation of vehicle vibrations. Large eddy simulations were first conducted on a vehicle model based on a production hatchback car with and without additional aerodynamic devices that had received good subjective assessments by drivers. The numerical results showed that the magnitudes of the lateral load fluctuations were larger without the devices at Strouhal numbers less than approximately 0.1, where surface pressure fluctuations indicated a negative correlation between the two sides of the rear end, which could give rise to yawing and rolling vibrations. Based on the numerical results, wind-tunnel tests were performed with a 28%-scale hatchback car model.