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Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Based on Human Sensitivity (Second Report) -A Study of Cornering Feel-

2007-04-16
2007-01-0447
Vehicle body movements that occur during cornering have a strong influence on the evaluation of ride and handling. As a first step, we analyze subjective comments from trained drivers and find that the sense of vision played a major part in cornering feel. As a result of quantitative evaluations, we hypothesize that smaller time lag between roll angle and pitch angle made cornering feel better. We perform a human sensitivity evaluation, which confirmed this hypothesis. Given this result, we derive analytical equations for the roll center kinematics and the damping characteristics, in order to find a theoretical condition for the time lag of 0sec (giving a good cornering feel). We verify this by experiment.
Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

2007-04-16
2007-01-0665
In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Reduction of HC Emission for Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0663
Analysis to clarify the influence of diesel nozzle hole specifications on HC emission is performed by using a single cylinder engine. The total nozzle hole area and the number of holes are the investigation parameters. The experimental results show that HC emission under low-load condition becomes higher with not only the increase of the total nozzle hole area but also the decrease of it. The reason for the increase of HC emission with small hole area is that the longer spray tip penetration of the pilot injection accelerates the spray diffusion in the cylinder, and the over-lean fuel-air mixture areas become easily formed.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Integrated Drive Power Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1306
Toyota has developed a new system, which uses integrated control of powertrain by PowerTrain Management (PTM), in order to improve driving comfort and reliability. This system is currently in use on Lexus's new LS460. This system is composed of 4 parts: a generation part, a mediating part, a modification part and a distribution part. In each part, processes are based on drive power and torque. In the generation part, requests from a programmed model driver, Driving Support Computer and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) are generated and expressed by drive power. In the mediating part, most suitable vehicle drive power was selected among the requests. In the modification part, the selected request is modified using a programmed powertrain model, which considers internal combustion engine condition and powertrain response and transmission's tolerance. In the distribution part, optimized engine torque and gear ratio are processed.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

2007-07-23
2007-01-1883
A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measuring Technology Using Electromagnetic Induction

2001-05-07
2001-01-2027
Authors have developed an apparatus which measures the piston temperature using electromagnetic induction. The characteristics of this apparatus are as follows; 1 Applicable to 6 points per cylinder and all cylinders 2 Capable of measuring while the engine is running from start to 6000r/min full-load operation 3 Wide measuring range; from -30 to 400 °C 4 High accuracy; ±2.5 °C 5 Quick and easy setup 6 High durability This technology contributes to realizing the best balance of piston reliability and matching of combustion conditions. In this report, authors analyzed its influences upon piston temperature when the ignition timing,the oil/water temperature or the oil flow from piston jet were changed, respectively.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Flow Noise Reduction upon Quick Opening the Throttle

2001-04-30
2001-01-1429
With the advance in modularization of engine parts in recent years, there is increased use of plastic-made products in air intake systems. Plastic-made intake manifolds (Fig. 1) provide many advantages including reduced weight, reduced cost, and lower intake air temperatures. However, these manifolds have one disadvantage when compared with conventional aluminum-made intake manifolds, in that they transmit more noise because of their lower material density. For example, plastic intake manifolds of early development often generate flow noise when the throttle is opened quickly. With conventional aluminum intake manifolds, this flow noise had generated, but was not heard. This flow noise is presumed to be generated because of high-speed airflow generated when the throttle is opened quickly, but the mechanism of this noise generation has not been clarified.
Technical Paper

Plate Type Methanol Steam Reformer Using New Catalytic Combustion for a Fuel Cell

2002-03-04
2002-01-0406
Methanol steam reforming, which is an endothermic reaction, needs some heating. Both methanol conversion ratio and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration increase when temperature is elevated. As CO poisons a typical polymer electrolyte of a fuel cell, the relationship between methanol conversion ratio and CO concentration is a trade-off one. It was found from preliminary researches that the reforming reaction speed is controlled by heat transfer rate at large methanol flow rate, where methanol conversion ratio becomes lower and CO concentration becomes higher. Therefore it is necessary to develop a new methanol reforming concept that provides stable combustion for heating and enhanced heat transfer for improving the trade-off relationship and making a compact reformer. Reforming catalyst using metal honeycomb support and a new catalytic combustion were applied to a new concept plate type methanol steam reformer, which is used in a fuel cell of 3 kW-class electric generation.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Transmission Development for AWD Luxury Cars

2007-10-29
2007-01-4122
A new hybrid transmission has been developed for all-wheel-drive (AWD) cars, and is used in the new Lexus LS600h and LS600hL for its first application. It has a compact layout consisting of a power-split device, generator, high-output electric motor, and a two-stage speed reduction device. Combined with a 5-liter V-8 engine, it achieves power performance rivaling 6-liter engine vehicles, the fuel efficiency of a medium-class vehicle, and outstanding quietness. This paper describes the structure, performance, and shift control technology of this hybrid transmission.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Six-Speed Automatic Transmission AB60E for RWD Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1098
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new six-speed automatic transmission AB60E for longitudinal front engine rear wheel drive (RWD) vehicles. This transmission development was aimed at an improvement of power performance and fuel economy, while achieving a lightweight, compact package and a high torque capacity. In order to achieve this target, a high-capacity ultra-flat torque converter, a highly-rigid transmission case, and an ATF warmer with a valve to switch ATF circuits to an air-cooled ATF cooler have been newly developed. Moreover, a new transmission mode control logic “TOW / HAUL” has been developed to improve power performance and driveability during trailer towing. This automatic transmission has adopted the same gear train and hydraulic control system as the conventional six-speed automatic transmission A760E. This paper describes the structure, major features and performance of the transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Toyota's World First 8-Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Cars

2007-04-16
2007-01-1101
TOYOTA has developed the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for front-engine, rear-drive passenger cars. The AA80E developed for high-torque engines raises the level of power performance and fuel efficiency. To meet the size requirements needed for mounting in a passenger car application, an 8-speed geartrain, torque converter, transmission case and hydraulic control device were all newly-developed. Furthermore, the AA80E has benefited from technical developments to achieve an extremely high level of quietness and shifting performance. In this paper, the details of the AA80E are introduced.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1135
In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.
Technical Paper

A New Battery System for the Estima Hybrid Minivan

2002-03-04
2002-01-1090
Development of a new battery system for Toyota Estima Hybrid, the world's first minivan hybrid vehicle, has been completed. The battery pack that consists of 30 nickel metal hydride battery modules is compactly arranged under the 3rd seat in the cabin along with components such as the battery cooling blower and the ducts. This arrangement was designed in consideration of user's vehicle use, passengers' comfort and efficient battery-cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrical 4WD System for Hybrid Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-1043
In June 2001, Toyota introduced its second hybrid vehicle to the Japanese market. It adopted a newly developed hybrid system that includes the world's first electrical four-wheel drive (4WD) system. In the development of this electrical 4WD system, it was necessary to determine the required rear motor torque to allow practical 4WD performance while maintaining excellent fuel economy. Initially, the factors affecting 4WD performance were quantitatively analyzed and then the rear wheel drive unit torque was optimized. This results in a new hybrid vehicle with practical 4WD performance and high efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of Planar Air Fuel Ratio Sensor

2002-03-04
2002-01-0474
In preparation for compliance with California's SULEV standard and the Euro STAGE-4 standard, which will take effect in 2004 and 2005, respectively, a planar air fuel ratio (A/F) sensor has been developed. By using technology established for the planar oxygen sensor already in practical use, the A/F sensor realizes light-off time of 10 seconds, faster than any conventional A/F sensors. In addition, with its newly developed gas diffusion structure, the planar A/F sensor provides high detection accuracy for a wide A/F range, from rich to lean.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed AZ Series Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0327
The design of the newly developed Toyota AZ series 4 cylinder engine has been optimized through both simulations and experiments to improve heat transfer, cooling water flow, vibration noise and other characteristics. The AZ engine was developed to achieve good power performance and significantly reduced vibration noise. The new engine meets the LEV regulations due to the improved combustion and optimized exhaust gas flow. A major reduction in friction has resulted in a significant improvement in fuel economy compared with conventional models. It also pioneered a newly developed resin gear drive balance shaft.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption at High Engine Speed by Visualization of the Piston Ring Behaviors

2000-10-16
2000-01-2877
In internal combustion engine, it is well-known that oil infiltrates the combustion chamber through the clearance between the piston ring and the cylinder bore with vertical reciprocating motion of the piston, leading to an increase in oil consumption. The deformation of the cylinder bore is inevitable to some extent in the actual engine because of the tightening of cylinder head bolt and heat load._As to the function of the piston ring, it is desirable that it conforms to such bore deformation. The author et al. made a glass cylinder engine in which closed piston ring gap could be visualized, based on the idea that piston ring conformability to the sliding surface of bore could be evaluated from minute changes of the piston ring gap. This newly-devised visualized engine was an in-line 4-cylinder engine, capable of running up to 6,000 rpm, in which the closed gap of piston ring could be observed minutely during engine operation.
Technical Paper

JamaS Study on the Location of In-Vehicle Displays

2000-11-01
2000-01-C010
JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc.)'s guideline for car navigation systems is being decided on displayed the amount of information while driving. The position of a display and the estimated equation, which could be applied from a passenger car to a heavy truck, was studied. The evaluation index was the distance which drivers could become aware of a preceding vehicle by their peripheral vision, because car accidents while drivers glance at an in- vehicle display are almost the rear end collisions. As the results, the lower limit of a position of an in-vehicle display for a passenger car was 30 degrees, and a heavy truck was 46 degrees.
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