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Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Based on Human Sensitivity (Second Report) -A Study of Cornering Feel-

2007-04-16
2007-01-0447
Vehicle body movements that occur during cornering have a strong influence on the evaluation of ride and handling. As a first step, we analyze subjective comments from trained drivers and find that the sense of vision played a major part in cornering feel. As a result of quantitative evaluations, we hypothesize that smaller time lag between roll angle and pitch angle made cornering feel better. We perform a human sensitivity evaluation, which confirmed this hypothesis. Given this result, we derive analytical equations for the roll center kinematics and the damping characteristics, in order to find a theoretical condition for the time lag of 0sec (giving a good cornering feel). We verify this by experiment.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Injection to Turbulent Duct Flow from a Slit Injector

2007-04-16
2007-01-1403
The behavior of spray injections to turbulent duct flows from a slit injector for direct-injection gasoline engines was investigated using a combination of large eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian discrete droplet model (DDM). As a result, diffusion of droplets in stronger turbulent flows was observed at a later stage of the injection. Moreover, we compared calculation and experimental results by generating a pseudo-particle image from the calculation result.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts - On the Two Effects of Rich-Spike Duration

2001-03-05
2001-01-1297
Two effects of rich-spike duration on NOx-storing have been analyzed. The first one, that NOx-storing speed decreases as rich-spike duration increases, is explained as the influence of NOx diffusion in wash-coat layer, which is quantified by a simple mathematical expression for NOx-storing rate. The second one, a peculiar behavior of NOx-storing in appearance of the outlet NOx concentration, is clarified: Heat produced directly or indirectly (via oxygen storage in ceria) by rich-spike warms up the downstream part, which releases excess NOx at the raised temperature. Contributions of the oxygen storage and the carbonate of NOx-storage material are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Transmission Development for AWD Luxury Cars

2007-10-29
2007-01-4122
A new hybrid transmission has been developed for all-wheel-drive (AWD) cars, and is used in the new Lexus LS600h and LS600hL for its first application. It has a compact layout consisting of a power-split device, generator, high-output electric motor, and a two-stage speed reduction device. Combined with a 5-liter V-8 engine, it achieves power performance rivaling 6-liter engine vehicles, the fuel efficiency of a medium-class vehicle, and outstanding quietness. This paper describes the structure, performance, and shift control technology of this hybrid transmission.
Technical Paper

HILS Application for Hybrid System Development

2007-08-05
2007-01-3469
The hybrid system has the typical advantage that it can realize various types of system control, because the system has two power units, engine and motor. On the other hand, however, constraints are increasing due to the complexity of the vehicle system. Compared to the conventional HILS construction and application, there are mainly two typical characteristics or themes for HV-HILS (i.e. HILS for hybrid vehicle control development). Firstly, HV-HILS requires full vehicle simulation environment, because the plural ECU control logic is intricately intertwined. Secondly, recent HILS system needs to run with more accurate or complicated plant models which are necessary to develop more accurate vehicle control logic.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Six-Speed Automatic Transmission AB60E for RWD Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1098
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new six-speed automatic transmission AB60E for longitudinal front engine rear wheel drive (RWD) vehicles. This transmission development was aimed at an improvement of power performance and fuel economy, while achieving a lightweight, compact package and a high torque capacity. In order to achieve this target, a high-capacity ultra-flat torque converter, a highly-rigid transmission case, and an ATF warmer with a valve to switch ATF circuits to an air-cooled ATF cooler have been newly developed. Moreover, a new transmission mode control logic “TOW / HAUL” has been developed to improve power performance and driveability during trailer towing. This automatic transmission has adopted the same gear train and hydraulic control system as the conventional six-speed automatic transmission A760E. This paper describes the structure, major features and performance of the transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Toyota's World First 8-Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Cars

2007-04-16
2007-01-1101
TOYOTA has developed the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for front-engine, rear-drive passenger cars. The AA80E developed for high-torque engines raises the level of power performance and fuel efficiency. To meet the size requirements needed for mounting in a passenger car application, an 8-speed geartrain, torque converter, transmission case and hydraulic control device were all newly-developed. Furthermore, the AA80E has benefited from technical developments to achieve an extremely high level of quietness and shifting performance. In this paper, the details of the AA80E are introduced.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1135
In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.
Technical Paper

A New Battery System for the Estima Hybrid Minivan

2002-03-04
2002-01-1090
Development of a new battery system for Toyota Estima Hybrid, the world's first minivan hybrid vehicle, has been completed. The battery pack that consists of 30 nickel metal hydride battery modules is compactly arranged under the 3rd seat in the cabin along with components such as the battery cooling blower and the ducts. This arrangement was designed in consideration of user's vehicle use, passengers' comfort and efficient battery-cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrical 4WD System for Hybrid Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-1043
In June 2001, Toyota introduced its second hybrid vehicle to the Japanese market. It adopted a newly developed hybrid system that includes the world's first electrical four-wheel drive (4WD) system. In the development of this electrical 4WD system, it was necessary to determine the required rear motor torque to allow practical 4WD performance while maintaining excellent fuel economy. Initially, the factors affecting 4WD performance were quantitatively analyzed and then the rear wheel drive unit torque was optimized. This results in a new hybrid vehicle with practical 4WD performance and high efficiency.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed AZ Series Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0327
The design of the newly developed Toyota AZ series 4 cylinder engine has been optimized through both simulations and experiments to improve heat transfer, cooling water flow, vibration noise and other characteristics. The AZ engine was developed to achieve good power performance and significantly reduced vibration noise. The new engine meets the LEV regulations due to the improved combustion and optimized exhaust gas flow. A major reduction in friction has resulted in a significant improvement in fuel economy compared with conventional models. It also pioneered a newly developed resin gear drive balance shaft.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

JamaS Study on the Location of In-Vehicle Displays

2000-11-01
2000-01-C010
JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc.)'s guideline for car navigation systems is being decided on displayed the amount of information while driving. The position of a display and the estimated equation, which could be applied from a passenger car to a heavy truck, was studied. The evaluation index was the distance which drivers could become aware of a preceding vehicle by their peripheral vision, because car accidents while drivers glance at an in- vehicle display are almost the rear end collisions. As the results, the lower limit of a position of an in-vehicle display for a passenger car was 30 degrees, and a heavy truck was 46 degrees.
Technical Paper

Hybrid System Development for High-Performance All Wheel Drive Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0296
The original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) was installed in the Prius and was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car. Since then, THS has been continuously improved. In 2003 THS-II (marketed as Hybrid Synergy Drive [HSD]), was installed in a new larger Prius. In 2006 HSD was installed in a Rear Wheel Drive Vehicle: the LEXUS GS450h. This system achieved both 4.5-liter class power performance and compact class fuel economy with outstanding emissions performance. In 2007, this system is expanded to a mechanical all-wheel-drive(AWD) in the LEXUS LS600hL(with new V8 engine). This paper will explain this hybrid system which achieved both V12 class power performance and mid-size class fuel economy, while meeting the most stringent emission standard SULEV as a full-size vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of New Manual Transmission Gear Oil for Fuel Economy

2005-05-11
2005-01-2182
We developed a new Manual Transmission Gear Oil (MTF) named LV for improved fuel economy and CO2 reduction. MTF LV is a low viscosity fluid to reduce stir losses at lower temperatures. In general, low viscosity fluids can cause metal fatigue, wear and seizure. The MTF LV was designed to overcome these problems by maintaining the oil film thickness after it is deteriorated and improving the wear characteristics with additives. As a result, the MTF LV provides equal or better durability than the current MTF. In addition, it also has good performance at low temperatures, better shift feeling characteristics, and improved oxidation stability.
Technical Paper

Development of a Super-Flat Torque Converter for the New Toyota FWD 6-Speed Automatic Transaxle

2006-04-03
2006-01-0149
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new super-flat torque converter for the Flex Start System. It is installed in a new six-speed automatic transaxle (U660E) for front engine, front wheel drive vehicles. The Flex Start System is the first technology in the world that can start smoothly and reduce torque converter slipping loss by using a lock-up clutch at start. The newly developed super-flat torus achieves a high torque capacity and a maximum efficiency of 90%. Fuel economy is increased further by adding an efficient damper for low-speed lock-up in the free space provided by utilizing the super-flat torus. Toyota also developed a simple and super-flat structure at the one-way clutch (O.W.C.) area. This paper describes the structure, features, and performance of this new torque converter and the Flex Start System.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Hybrid Transmission for FWD Sports Utility Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0272
1 A new hybrid transmission (P310) has been developed for FWD 3-liter engine class sports utility vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving power performance and fuel economy, achieving the world's top-level weight reduction and compact size, while maintaining high torque capacity. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed, and advanced technology has been applied. Moreover, this hybrid transmission achieves seamless acceleration and quiet performance. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for SUV

2005-04-11
2005-01-0273
Toyota Hybrid System (THS), that combines a gasoline engine and an electric motor was installed in the Prius, which was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car, and was vastly improved in 2003. The new Prius gained a status of highly innovative and practical vehicle. In 2005, combined with a V6 engine, THS had a further evolution as a Hybrid System for SUV, which was installed in the RX400h and Highlander Hybrid to be introduced into the world. This report will explain “new THS” which achieved both V8 engine power performance and compact class fuel economy, while securing the most stringent emission standard, SULEV.
Technical Paper

Development of New Sports Shift Control System for Toyota's Automatic Transmission

2008-04-14
2008-01-0535
Toyota has developed a new sports shift control system introduced in the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E), which is implemented in the “LS 460” and has been adopted in the “IS F” (upcoming 2008 model). This enables the IS F to be a vehicle that also permits the enjoyment of driving on circuits as well as achieving that “fun-to-drive” image. In sports driving, as achieved by the conventional torque converter-type automatic transmissions, shift response performance for shift operation and linearity performance for accelerator operations were challenges to tackle. On the contrary, the newly developed sports shift control system has resolved these challenges and enables the IS F to be capable of responding to a driver's intention quickly and accurately, letting the driver truly experience satisfaction.
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