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Technical Paper

Future Automotive Technical Trends

1988-03-01
871155
This paper provides an overview of the automotive technology and its future trends mainly focussing on Japan. The future automotive technology will basically be on the projection of current technology, although it is expected more progress to be made in advanced and precision control systems. The application of electronics and development of new materials will play a very important role in this area.
Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Poisoning Deactivations of Automotive Catalysts by Lead and Phosphorus

1985-11-11
852219
The deactivation process of automotive catalysts by lead and phosphoruos were studied. The accelerated poisoning test were performed. The activity evaluation and characterisation of poisoned pellet oxidation catalysts showed the following origin of poisoning deactivations. Lead interacts with active materials and phosphorus covers over catalysts to reduce these catalytic performance. In the case of phosphorus and lead co-existence, the activity decreases rapidly because leadphosphate plugges pores of the support. In monolithic catalysts, highly axial distributions of poisons was obserbed. This characteristic distribution is advantageous for the durability of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Injection to Turbulent Duct Flow from a Slit Injector

2007-04-16
2007-01-1403
The behavior of spray injections to turbulent duct flows from a slit injector for direct-injection gasoline engines was investigated using a combination of large eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian discrete droplet model (DDM). As a result, diffusion of droplets in stronger turbulent flows was observed at a later stage of the injection. Moreover, we compared calculation and experimental results by generating a pseudo-particle image from the calculation result.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

2007-07-23
2007-01-1883
A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

Carbon Dioxide Measuring Technology in Engine Combustion Chambers

2004-03-08
2004-01-1340
The authors have developed an instrument that measures the CO2 concentration in engine combustion chambers using the infrared absorption method. The characteristics of this technology are as follows: 1 Measuring can be carried out while the engine is running at 600r/min to more than 3000r/min, full load operation. (Applicable to all EGR conditions) 2 Quick response; 2ms 3 High linearity; ±1% Full Scale and under (FS: 10%) 4 No aggravation is caused to the intake/exhaust performance of engines This technology contributes to the improvement of the in-cylinder EGR system using, for instance, a variable valve-timing mechanism that is now expanding in number of applications, and also the conventional EGR system.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of the Relation between Flame Structure and Turbulence in HCCI Combustion by Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0061
The structure of HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion flames was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the two-dimensional gas temperature distribution using phosphor thermometry. It was found from the relation between a turbulent Reynolds number and Karlovitz number that, when compared with the flame propagation in an S.I. engine, HCCI combustion has a wider flame structure with respect to the turbulence scale. As a result of our experimentation for the influence of low temperature reaction (LTR) using two types of fuel, it was also confirmed that different types of fuel produce different histories of flame kernel structure.
Technical Paper

Development of an Abdominal Deformation Measuring System for Hybrid III Dummy

1994-11-01
942223
A new abdominal deformation measuring system for Hybrid III dummy has been developed in order to evaluate the abdominal injury by using the dummy. From the dynamic abdominal deformation of the dummy, the abdominal compression velocity V, the compression ratio C, and the maximum value of the product VC, expressed as [VC]MAX, can be calculated. This abdominal deformation measuring system consists of an abdominal insert having the same compression characteristics as those of the human body, a dynamic deformation sensor, and an analysis program. The abdominal insert is made of elastic foam rubber and has a shape fitted to Hybrid III. The deformation sensor in a band shape is a thin stainless steel band with 25 strain gauges on it. Each strain gauge measures the curvature on its mounted position. Since the deformation sensor is located along the surface of the dummy abdomen, the sensor deforms as the dummy surface deforms.
Technical Paper

New Technology for Reducing the Power Consumption of Electrically Heated Catalysts

1994-03-01
940464
A new heating strategy for electrically heated catalysts has been developed which reduces power consumption while achieving the desired hydrocarbon conversion. The relationship between catalyst volume and power consumption is presented. Observations of catalytic reactions by a thermoviewer camera and mathematical simulations are used to optimize the heating pattern. Significant reductions in power consumption, while maintaining conversion efficiency, are reported by heating only the front face of the catalyst. However, prior to mass production additional work is required to improve durability, and reliability and to resolve manufacturing issues.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalyst with Using Only Pd as Activator

1995-02-01
950257
The Pd only three-way catalyst with Rh as an activator completely removed has been developed. The catalyst has been improved with regards to its thermal stability and its NOx reduction capability in the fuel rich region. These two factors have been known as the weak points of Pd catalyst. The thermal stability of the Pd catalyst was improved by modifying the washcoat alumina to yield a higher thermal stability. On the other hand, the NOx reduction capability was controlled by adding a combination of La and Ba. The developed Pd only three-way catalyst demonstrated the equivalent performance to a current production Pt/Rh catalyst after engine dynamometer aging up to 800°C.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Optimization Technique Based on The Basis Vector Method

1995-02-01
950575
A practical shape optimization technique is presented. We employed the basis vector method to parameterize the shape of the structural domain that is usually discretized by the finite element method. VMA/GENESIS software, the optimization system with finite element analysis, sensitivity analysis, and numerical optimization capabilities, was used for this study. Various design problems such as body, chassis, and engine parts design are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the present approach for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

1995-02-01
950672
The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Three-Way Catalyst for Automotive Lean-Burn Engines

1995-02-01
950809
A new 3-way catalyst with NOx conversion performance for lean-burn engines has been developed. The catalyst oxidizes NOx and stores the resulting nitrate, which is then reduced by HC and CO during engine operation around the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Both the composition of the storage component and the particle sizes of the noble metal were optimized. In addition, a special air fuel mixture control has been developed to make the best of the NOx storage-reduction function. The present catalyst showed 90% conversion efficiency and improved fuel economy by 4% in the Japanese 10-15 mode test cycle. The efficiency remained at 60% or more after durability test.
Technical Paper

New Light Weight 3 Liter V6 Toyota Engine with High Output Torque, Good Fuel Economy and Low Exhaust Emission Levels

1995-02-01
950805
A new generation 3.0 liter V6 engine, the 1MZ-FE, has been developed. Through improvement of the basic technical characteristics of each individual component, the 1MZ-FE has achieved compactness, weight reduction and good fuel economy without adding systems or components. This new engine makes use of an aluminum cylinder block, and compared with the previous V6 engine, significant weight reduction of the crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons was achieved while still maintaining a high level of rigidity. To improve fuel economy, friction loss was reduced substantially by reducing the weight of moving parts and improving the surface roughness of sliding parts. The combustion was also improved through better fuel atomization by the air-assisted fuel injector and modification of the combustion chamber shape. Through these improvements the 1MZ-FE has achieved a weight reduction of approximately 20% and far greater vehicle fuel economy than before.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

1993-10-01
932840
According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Journal Article

Development of Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions Systems for Toyota THS II Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0831
Exhaust and evaporative emissions systems have been developed to match the characteristics and usage of the Toyota THS II plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on the commercially available Prius, the Toyota PHEV features an additional external charging function, which allows it to be driven as an electric vehicle (EV) in urban areas, and as an hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in high-speed/high-load and long-distance driving situations. To reduce exhaust emissions, the conventional catalyst warm up control has been enhanced to achieve emissions performance that satisfies California's Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standards in every state of battery charge. In addition, a heat insulating fuel vapor containment system (FVS) has been developed using a plastic fuel tank based on the assumption that such a system can reduce the diffusion of vapor inside the fuel tank and the release of fuel vapor in to the atmosphere to the maximum possible extent.
Journal Article

High Concentration Ethanol Effect on SI Engine Emission

2010-04-12
2010-01-1268
From the energy security and CO2 reduction point of view, much attention has been paid to the usage of bio-fuel. Recently, highly concentrated ethanol is used in some areas (“E85”; 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline in North America and Sweden, and “ethanol”; 93% ethanol and 7% water in Brazil). In these regions, Flexible Fuel Vehicles FFVs are being introduced that are capable of using fuels with a wide range of ethanol concentrations. Advantages of highly concentrated ethanol in internal combustion engine applications are higher thermal efficiency obtained due to higher octane number, and a reduction of nitrogen oxides due to lower combustion temperatures On the other hand, the latent heat of vaporization for ethanol is greater than gasoline, causing poor cold startability and high NMOG emissions. This paper examines the effect of highly concentrated ethanol on exhaust emissions at cold start in a SI- engine.
Technical Paper

Study of High Efficiency Zero-Emission Argon Circulated Hydrogen Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0581
The potential of high efficiency zero-emission engines fueled by hydrogen, which is regarded as a promising form of energy for the future, is being researched. The argon circulated hydrogen engine [ 1 ] is one system theoretically capable of achieving both high efficiency and zero emissions, and its feasibility for use in vehicles has been studied. Specifically, tests were performed to verify the following issues. It was examined whether stable hydrogen combustion could be achieved under an atmosphere of argon and oxygen, which has a high specific heat ratio, and whether the substantial thermal efficiency improvement effect of the argon working gas could be achieved. An argon circulation system was also studied whereby steam, which is the combustion product of the hydrogen and oxygen emitted from the engine, is separated by condensation to enable the remaining argon to be re-used.
Technical Paper

Research on Improving Thermal Efficiency through Variable Super-High Expansion Ratio Cycle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0174
The compression ratio and expansion ratio are fundamental parameters that determine the thermal efficiency of an SI engine, and the potential of setting these ratios to arbitrary values was studied as a way of improving engine efficiency. First, the efficiency resulting from different compression and expansion ratios was calculated from a theoretical formula. As a result, it was verified that a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency could be expected by adopting a super-high expansion ratio of 20 or higher, which is an extremely large value for an SI engine, while keeping the compression ratio within a range that can ensure appropriate combustion. Subsequently, this research calculated the possibility of improving engine efficiency under a condition that constrains the swept volume to a constant value in consideration of practicability.
Journal Article

Development of Clean Diesel NOx After-treatment System with Sulfur Trap Catalyst

2010-04-12
2010-01-0303
Diesel engines with relatively good fuel economy are known as an effective means of reducing CO₂ emissions. It is expected that diesel engines will continue to expand as efforts to slow global warming are intensified. Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR), which was first developed in 2003 for introduction in the Japanese and European markets, shows high purification performance which can meet more stringent regulations in the future. However, it is poisoned by sulfur components in exhaust gas derived from fuel and lubricant. We then developed the sulfur trap DPNR with a sulfur trap catalyst that traps sulfur components in the exhaust gas. High purification performance could be achieved with a small amount of platinum group metal (PGM) due to prevention of sulfur poisoning and thermal deterioration.
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