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Technical Paper

Future Automotive Technical Trends

This paper provides an overview of the automotive technology and its future trends mainly focussing on Japan. The future automotive technology will basically be on the projection of current technology, although it is expected more progress to be made in advanced and precision control systems. The application of electronics and development of new materials will play a very important role in this area.
Technical Paper

International Technical Transfer of Automobile Manufacturing

Automobile production technology has been transferred in the order of "automobile assembly technology", "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology". Transfer of our "automobile assembly technology" has already been nearly 100% completed and, as the manufacture of local parts is promoted and our experiences to undergo model changes are widened, the transfer of "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology" is making a steady progress. The most critical point that makes the technical transfer difficult is the small automobile markets in developing countries where it is impossible to acquire a sufficient production volume which permits satisfactorily low cost. Various measures to secure a sufficient production volume such as exports and complementation within regions have been taken so far, but any remarkable effect has not been achieved.
Technical Paper

Poisoning Deactivations of Automotive Catalysts by Lead and Phosphorus

The deactivation process of automotive catalysts by lead and phosphoruos were studied. The accelerated poisoning test were performed. The activity evaluation and characterisation of poisoned pellet oxidation catalysts showed the following origin of poisoning deactivations. Lead interacts with active materials and phosphorus covers over catalysts to reduce these catalytic performance. In the case of phosphorus and lead co-existence, the activity decreases rapidly because leadphosphate plugges pores of the support. In monolithic catalysts, highly axial distributions of poisons was obserbed. This characteristic distribution is advantageous for the durability of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Injection to Turbulent Duct Flow from a Slit Injector

The behavior of spray injections to turbulent duct flows from a slit injector for direct-injection gasoline engines was investigated using a combination of large eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian discrete droplet model (DDM). As a result, diffusion of droplets in stronger turbulent flows was observed at a later stage of the injection. Moreover, we compared calculation and experimental results by generating a pseudo-particle image from the calculation result.
Technical Paper

Development of an Abdominal Deformation Measuring System for Hybrid III Dummy

A new abdominal deformation measuring system for Hybrid III dummy has been developed in order to evaluate the abdominal injury by using the dummy. From the dynamic abdominal deformation of the dummy, the abdominal compression velocity V, the compression ratio C, and the maximum value of the product VC, expressed as [VC]MAX, can be calculated. This abdominal deformation measuring system consists of an abdominal insert having the same compression characteristics as those of the human body, a dynamic deformation sensor, and an analysis program. The abdominal insert is made of elastic foam rubber and has a shape fitted to Hybrid III. The deformation sensor in a band shape is a thin stainless steel band with 25 strain gauges on it. Each strain gauge measures the curvature on its mounted position. Since the deformation sensor is located along the surface of the dummy abdomen, the sensor deforms as the dummy surface deforms.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Optimization Technique Based on The Basis Vector Method

A practical shape optimization technique is presented. We employed the basis vector method to parameterize the shape of the structural domain that is usually discretized by the finite element method. VMA/GENESIS software, the optimization system with finite element analysis, sensitivity analysis, and numerical optimization capabilities, was used for this study. Various design problems such as body, chassis, and engine parts design are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the present approach for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy Rear A/F Sensor

New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy NOx Sensor

This paper presents an improvement in the accuracy of NOx sensors at high NOx concentration regions by optimizing the manufacturing process, sensor electrode materials and structure, in order to suppress the deterioration mechanism of sensor electrodes. Though NOx sensors generally consist of Pt/Au alloy based oxygen pump electrodes and Pt/Rh alloy based sensor electrodes, detailed experimental analysis of aged NOx sensors showed changes in the surface composition and morphology of the sensor electrode. The surface of the sensor electrode was covered with Au, which is not originally contained in the electrode, resulting in a diminished active site for NOx detection on the sensor electrode and a decrease in sensor output. Theoretical analysis using CAE with molecular dynamics supported that Au tends to be concentrated on the surface of the sensor electrode.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Analysis System for Noise and Vibration on Vehicles

An analysis system for vehicle noise and vibration has been developed. It consists of minicomputer based analog processing system connected with a large main-frame computer. This system features multi-modes for data analysis, fast data processing, data compatibility with conventional analog systems and feasibility. Fast data processing was achieved by newly developed FFT processor and minicomputer software. A new remote control box makes it simple to operate. Data processed by the minicomputer can be transferred to a large mainframe computer for further analysis.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Single-Chip Microcomputer Based Engine and Transmission Control System

Toyota succeeded in the fall of 1984 in manufacturing a complex engine and transmission control system using a newly developed single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer, equipped with an 8K-byte ROM ( Read Only Memory) and a 256-byte RAM ( Random Access Memory), a powerful real time processing function, and a high-speed optimum instruction set, is better suited for automobiles. Application of the latest CMOS technology has enabled lower power consumption and improved noise immunity. The new system, which includes a new function; the electronic spark advance with knock control in addition to the conventional sophisticated system, has greatly improved the performance and driveability of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Sound Localization Control System for Car Stereo

In a two-loudspeaker stereophonic reproduction system of a passenger car, the geometrical configuration of the right and left loudspeakers has the disadvantage of being asymmetrical to the listener. For this system, we have made both theoretical and experimental verifications of the effects of strongly reflected sounds on the sound pressure level difference and phase difference between two ears which determine the location of sound image in a small compartment of a passenger car. On the basis of these verifications, we have developed a new sound localization control system. With this system, acoustical effects such as sound expansion and ambience have been greatly improved in a passenger car. In this system, input signals to the loudspeakers are controlled so that the sound image produced by the loudspeaker nearer to the listeners may acoustically move so as to position itself symmetrically with the other loudspeaker with regard to the listeners.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Gas Motion of Multivalve Engine-Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation

The characteristic of In-Cylinder gas motion of a multivalve engine is compared with a single intake valve engine, which have been predicted by a three-dimensional numerical simulation and flow visualization. The measured intake valve outlet velocity from helical and straight port was adopted as the boundary conditions. The computer graphics technique has been utilized to express the predicted numerical results as moving picture like visualized flow. This flow pattern was compared with the actual flow pattern visualized with metaldehyde as the tracer using the bottom viewed engine, which showed good agreement. The prediction for the multivalve engine showed that the swirl velocity is rapidly reduced by interaction between the flows from the two port, but the turbulence kinetic energy is similar to that in the engines with a single intake valve with helical port.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

Development of Vibration Reduction Motor Control for Series-Parallel Hybrid System

In hybrid electric vehicles, engine starting and stopping occur frequently to provide better fuel economy. Specifically, the structure of the series-parallel hybrid system transmits engine torque pulsations to the driving wheels during engine starting and stopping, which may degrade the quality of the ride. In addition, the quick response of the electric motor can easily cause drivetrain vibration. This paper presents a motor control system for a series-parallel hybrid vehicle designed to reduce these vibrations. The proposed motor control system consists of two parts; one controller functions to compensate the engine torque pulsation during engine starts, and the other controller functions to control torsional vibration of the propeller shaft and drive shaft generated by rapid increases or decreases in driving torque. The proposed vibration reduction motor control method was added to the motor controller on the first rear wheel drive hybrid vehicle (Lexus GS450h).