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Technical Paper

Investigation on Oxidation Stability of Engine Oils Using Laboratory Scale Simulator

The purposes of this paper are to develop a new laboratory oxidation stability testing method and to clarify factors relative to the viscosity increase of engine oil. Polymerized products, obtained from the oil after a JASO M333-93 engine test, were found to consist mainly of carboxyl, nitrate and nitro compounds and to increase the oil viscosity. A good similarity between the JASO M333-93 test and the laboratory simulation test was found for the polymerized products. The products were obtained not by heating oil only in air but by heating oil while supplying a synthetic blowby gas consisting of fuel pyrolysis products, NO, SO2 and air. The laboratory test has also revealed that the viscosity increase depends on oil quality, organic Fe content and hydrocarbon composition in the fuel. Moreover, it has been found that blowby gas and organic Fe accelerate ZnDTP consumption and that aromatics concentration in the fuel correlates with the viscosity increase of oil.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Control in Limit Cornering by Active Brake

Improvement of vehicle dynamics in limit cornering have been studied. Simulations and tests have verified that vehicle stability and course trace performance in limit cornering have been improved by active brake control of each wheel. The controler manages vehicle yaw moment utilizing difference braking force between left and right wheels, and vehicle deceleration utilizing sum of braking forces of all wheels.
Technical Paper

A Study on Low-Frequency Brake Squeal Noise

A new method to predict low-frequency brake squeal occurrence was developed and guidelines for its elimination were formulated. First, a characteristic of the phenomenon was investigated using a simplified three-degree-of-freedom system model to obtain guidelines for squeal elimination, such as the natural frequency ratio of the brake rotor and caliper, an equivalent mass ratio of the brake rotor and caliper and the natural frequency and damping coefficient of the dynamic absorber. Then, a practical finite element model of the disk brake system was developed using Substructure Synthesis Method for design stage predictions. Finally, the usefulness of this method was confirmed by experimental validation.
Technical Paper

Development of ABS and Traction Control Computer

A new ABS and Traction control system (TRAC system) has been developed and put into mass production in a new model LEXUS LS400. The TRAC system controls Sub-Throttle Valve and brake hydraulic pressure independently for left and right wheels. To realize the ABS and TRAC system,it is necessary for the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to process complex algorithm and high speed calculation. The ABS and TRAC ECU for LEXUS LS400 is constructed by 3 TOYOTA custom 8-bit single chip microcomputers. Each CPU performs wheel speed calculation,ABS control and TRAC control,sharing the common data through high speed serial communication. This paper describes the function of each CPU,the method of CPU communication and fail safe function in the ECU.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rotary Tri-Blade Coupling for Four-Wheel Drive Cars

A new type of torque transmit coupling has recently been developed for 4WD cars, that provides a better match to ABS, is of lighter weight, and uses a simpler operating mechanism. This coupling transmits torque with a multi-disc clutch that is engaged by the pressure of high viscosity silicone oil. The rotary blade generates variably the silicone oil pressure, according to both differential speed and direction of rotation between the front and rear wheels. This coupling provides a good match between 4WD performance and four wheel Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) by a modification of the rotary blade shape. No additional devices are needed. This paper describes the characteristics of this coupling and the in-vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Toyota EC-HYMATIC – A New Full Time 4WD System for Automatic Transmission

Toyota has developed a new full time 4WD system, called “EC-HYMATIC” or Electronically Controlled - HYdraulic Multi-plate clutch Active Traction Intelligent Control. This system permits an automatic torque transfer, depending on driving conditions, for front and rear wheels under control of the speed difference between the two. The system developed consists of a center differential, a speed difference control clutch system employing multi-plate clutch, and a gear set for rear axle drive. The speed difference control clutch system is controlled by a unique electro-hydraulic system using a microcomputer. An extensive use of computer simulations and vehicle test and evaluation has successfully developed an appropriate control strategy for the clutch system. The new 4WD system, EC-HYMATIC, considerably improves handling characteristics, traction performance and stability of a 4WD vehicle.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Intake Valve Deposit Formation Part III: Effects of Gasoline Quality

Quality control of gasoline constituents and its effect on the Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has become a recent issue. In this paper, the effects of gasoline and oil quality on intake valve deposits were investigated using an Intake Valve Deposit Test Bench and a Sludge Simulator. The deposit formation from the gasoline maximized at an intake valve temperature of approximately 160 °C, and the deposits formed from the engine oil were maximum at approximately 250 °C. Therefore, the contribution of the gasoline or the engine oil appears to depend on the engine conditions. The gasoline which contains MTBE or ethanol with no detergent additive slightly increases the deposition amount. The gasoline with a superior detergent significantly decreases the deposition amount even when MTBE or ethanol is blended in the gasoline. Appropriate detergent fuel additive retards the oil deterioration.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Vehicle Acceleration Sensor Applied with Magnetic Fluid

Sensors which can detect minimal acceleration such as ± 9.8 m/sec2 in longitudinal and lateral direction of a vehicle, for DC to 20 Hz range, are required to control ABS (anti-lock braking system) or suspension system. To fulfill these requirements, we have developed a one-dimensional acceleration sensor, using magnetic fluid, to control the vehicle. In 1992, we submitted a paper on this sensor at the SAE International Congress and Exposition. Based on this one-dimensional acceleration sensor, we have developed an acceleration sensor which can detect two dimensional acceleration using a single inertia mass. This sensor is compact and can detect minimal acceleration with high accuracy. Spring and damping functions were obtained via the adoption of magnetic fluid, as in the case of the former one-dimensional acceleration sensor. This sensor can sustain mechanical shocks.
Technical Paper

Technical Service Training in the “Hi-Tech” Era

In recent years, advanced technology has become more and more important in the design of automobiles. Therefore, if we wish our products to continue to display their full potential to the people who buy them, thus ensuring customer satisfaction with our products, we must, even in the area of after-soles service, ensure that the technical proficiency and knowledge of our technicians will continue to keep pace with advances in technology. To do this, we must carry out effective “high-tech” training for our dealer workshops this is our present and future challenge Toyota's technical service training system is now applied to some 50, 000 service technicians in around 10, 000 workshops throughout the world, and the proposed report will introduce this system and give some actual examples of technical training that is actually carried out.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Sensor Applied with Magnetic Fluid

In vehicle control systems such as ABS (anti-lock braking system) or active suspension control, sensors for detecting longitudinal and/or lateral acceleration of vehicles (acceleration of up to ± 9.8 m/s2, with frequency range of DC to 20 Hz) is necessary. The principle of acceleration detection for this sensor is as follows. A permanent magnet levitates steadily in magnetic fluid by the action of the magnetic field generated by the magnet itself. The magnet moves by the application of acceleration on the mass of the magnet. This change of position of the magnet is detected by the Hall element, and thus acceleration is measured as an electrical signal. This sensor consists of only magnetic fluid, a permanent magnet, housing, a pair of Hall elements and an electronic circuit.
Technical Paper

Traction Control (TRC) System for 1987 Toyota Crown

Excessive throttle pedal operation while driving on slippery roads causes the wheels to spin, consequently reducing vehicle stability and traction. Driving a vehicle under these conditions imposes additional and unneccessary burdens on the driver. To solve the problem, a traction control (TRC) system controlling engine torque and brake force has been developed to prevent the driven wheels from excessive spinning. The TRC system consists of some additional components to the Antilock Brake System (ABS), a system which had previously been developed to prevent wheels from locking up during hard braking. The combination of the ABS and the TRC system will now be effective to assist the driver to improve the vehicle driving performance on slippery road surfaces.
Technical Paper

Study on Disc Brake Squeal

Eliminating brake squeal generated during brake application is an important task for the improvement of comfort in the vehicle. There has been a lot of research made on the problem of brake squeal in the past. And most of the papers presented elaborate on low frequency brake squeal (2-3kHz). However, brake squeal has often the high-frequency vibration. For this reason, we have made research into the high-frequency brake squeal (5-10kHz). Double-Pulsed Laser Holography is a useful method for visualizing small vibration of brake components during brake squeal generation. The results obtained using Holographic Interferometry show the rotaing disc vibrates in the bending mode with diametral nodes. Consequently, we think that the modification of brake disc can eliminate brake squeal, which is caused by self-excited vibration. Then we have calculated natural frequency and its vibration mode of a circular-plate added mass.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake Pad Wear/Life by Means of Brake Severity Factor As Measured on a Data Logging System

The use of brakes on public roads depends on traffic conditions and the road itself. In order to research into brake usage on various roads and under various conditions, a micro-computer data logging system was developed. The recorded data were analyzed by a large computer and the severity of brake usages was defined. The relationship between the severity and the brake disc rotor temperature was derived, and used to predict brake pad wear/life. The predicted wear coincided fairly clossly with measured wear.
Technical Paper

Structural Design Technology for Brake Squeal Reduction Using Sensitivity Analysis

The finite element method (FEM) is effective for analyzing brake squeal phenomena. Although FEM analysis can be used to easily obtain squeal frequencies and complex vibration modes, it is difficult to identify how to modify brake structure design or contact conditions between components. Therefore, this study deals with a practical design method using sensitivity analysis to reduce brake squeal, which is capable of optimizing both the structure of components and contact conditions. A series of analysis processes that consist of modal reduction, complex eigenvalue analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization analysis is shown and some application results are described using disk brake systems.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Set Up Development for Brake Squeal Basic Research

The vehicle requires high brake performance and mass reduction of disc brake for vehicle fuel economy. Then disc brake will be designed by downsizing of disc and high friction coefficient pad materials. It is well known that disc brake squeal is frequently caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Disc brake squeal is caused by dynamic unstable system under disturbance of friction force variation. Today, disc brake squeal comes to be simulated by FEA, but it is very difficult to put so many dynamic unstable solutions into stable solutions. Therefore it is very important to make it clear the influence of friction force variation. This paper describes the development of experimental set up for disc brake squeal basic research. First, the equation of motion in low-frequency disc brake squeal around 2 kHz is derived.
Technical Paper

Simulator Motion Sickness Evaluation Based on Eye Mark Recording during Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified.
Technical Paper

HILS Application for Hybrid System Development

The hybrid system has the typical advantage that it can realize various types of system control, because the system has two power units, engine and motor. On the other hand, however, constraints are increasing due to the complexity of the vehicle system. Compared to the conventional HILS construction and application, there are mainly two typical characteristics or themes for HV-HILS (i.e. HILS for hybrid vehicle control development). Firstly, HV-HILS requires full vehicle simulation environment, because the plural ECU control logic is intricately intertwined. Secondly, recent HILS system needs to run with more accurate or complicated plant models which are necessary to develop more accurate vehicle control logic.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis of Low Frequency Disk Brake Squeal

Reducing disk brake squeal, especially low frequency disk brake squeal (1-5kHz), is an important technical issue in vehicles. The disk brake squeal mechanism has been shown in many papers (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) and (9). Recently, the disk brake squeal comes to be simulated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for disk brake design (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), (16), (17), (18) and (19). Though FEA is useful, it is sometimes difficult to modify in large when the prototype of disk brake system has been designed. First Order Analysis gives design concepts, which should be done before FEA. This paper shows First Order Analysis of low frequency disk brake squeal. The equation of motion is shown in 4 degrees of freedom model. In this equation the generalized force matrix is composed of the variations of pressure and friction force between each brake pad and brake disk. The generalized force matrix is arranged with a symmetric matrix and an anti-symmetric matrix.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control System Developed for Toyota Mild Hybrid System (THS-M)

Environmental improvement is moving forward, due in part to the reduction of fuel consumption of automatic transmission(AT) vehicles as a result of social requirements in recent years and many measures have been implemented. Adoption of idling stop is a typical example introduced to reduce energy consumption while the vehicle is stopped to improve the urban environment. However, there are problems such as responsiveness and smoothness for an AT vehicle when the engine is stopped with the shift selector in “D” range. To overcome these problems, a new start clutch control system has been developed using an electric oil pump installed in a simple hybrid vehicle called a mild hybrid. As a result, a smooth feeling starting performance is achieved by operating the system in combination with the engine and other systems.