Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Alert Method for Rear Cross Traffic Alert System in North America

2013-04-08
2013-01-0732
In recent years, a number of different Blind Spot Monitor (BSM) systems have become more and more popular in North American automotive market. The BSM system advises the driver of vehicles travelling in adjacent lanes when these vehicles are also in the driver's outside rearview mirror blind spots. Similarly, when the vehicle is backing up from a parking spot, cross-traffic vehicles can be in the driver's outside mirror blind spots. In this situation, the Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system alerts the driver when the driver shifts the vehicle in the reverse gear and there are approaching cross-traffic vehicles. The benefits of RCTA system was presented by [1]. The RCTA alert studied in this paper is given by playing an audible sound and by flashing the outside mirror indicators. The RCTA and BSM systems share the same vehicle sensors and most of their vehicle components.
Technical Paper

Development of Driving Force Control Technology of CVT for North American Market

2014-04-01
2014-01-1730
Toyota Motor Corporation developed a continuously variable transmission (CVT), unit K313, to satisfy the rising demand for improved fuel economy. This transmission was installed in the North American market Corolla for the 2014 model year. In this market, the driveability demands for automatic transmissions (AT) are very high. Additionally, the market is dominated by conventional AT with fixed gear ratios, leaving CVTs in the minority. In order to increase the volume and acceptance of CVTs in North America, excellent driveability had to be ensured. The key driveability advantage of CVTs is the ability to change gear ratio continuously without engaging or disengaging clutches. This allows for smooth driving without any shocks or gaps in drive force; however, it can also feel strange to drivers of conventional AT.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Engine Oil Effect on Abnormal Combustion in Turbocharged Direct Injection - Spark Ignition Engines (Part 2)

2013-10-14
2013-01-2569
As one of spark ignition (SI) engine solutions to improve fuel economy while maintaining drivability, concept of combing turbocharging and direct injection (DI) fuel injection system with engine down-sizing has increased its application in the market. Abnormal combustion phenomena referred to as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) has been recognized as potential restriction to improve low speed engine torque that contributes fuel economy improvement. As reported in the part 1 [1], the study showed that engine oil composition had significant influence on the frequency of LSPI in both preventive and contributory effects. Further investigation was conducted to evaluate engine oil formulation variables and other factors that may have influences on the LSPI, such as engine oil degradation. Engine test that consisted of 2 phases was designed in order to confirm the correlation between LSPI frequency and engine oil degradation.
Technical Paper

Study of Cooling Drag Reduction Method by Controlling Cooling Flow

2014-04-01
2014-01-0679
As the demand for improved fuel economy increases and new CO2 regulations have been issued, aerodynamic drag reduction has become more critical. One of the important factors to consider is cooling drag. One way to reduce cooling drag is to decrease the air flow volume through the front grille, but this has an undesirable impact on cooling performance as well as component heat load in the under-hood area. For this reason, cooling drag reduction methods while keeping reliability, cooling performance and component heat management were investigated in this study. At first, air flow volume reduction at high speed was studied, where aerodynamic drag has the greatest influence. For vehicles sold in the USA, cooling specification tends to be determined based on low speed, while towing or driving up mountain roads, and therefore, there may be extra cooling capacity under high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion (ESTEC)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1192
From the time the first Hybrid Vehicle (HV) was launched, 17 years have past, and HV vehicles have boosted the global CO2 reduction trend. In order to maximize their merit, many HV engines focused on the best fuel consumption value namely thermal efficiency. This was because HV systems can control the operating area of engine and get merit. However, considering climate change and energy issues, it is important to focus conventional vehicle as well as HV vehicle progress. The Atkinson cycle with a high compression ratio is the typical approach that HV engines use to enhance thermal efficiency. However, the drawback of the high compression ratio is a reduction of engine torque. Thermal efficiency at low load areas is relatively more important with conventional engines than with HV engines and how to overcome these issues is significantly important with conventional engines.
Journal Article

Onboard Gasoline Separation for Improved Vehicle Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1200
ExxonMobil, Corning and Toyota have collaborated on an Onboard Separation System (OBS) to improve gasoline engine efficiency and performance. OBS is a membrane based process that separates gasoline into higher and lower octane fractions, allowing optimal use of fuel components based on engine requirements. The novel polymer-ceramic composite monolith membrane has been demonstrated to be stable to E10 gasoline, while typically providing 20% yield of ∼100 RON product when using RUL 92 RON gasoline. The OBS system makes use of wasted exhaust energy to effect the fuel separation and provides a simple and reliable means for managing the separated fuels that has been demonstrated using several generations of dual fuel test vehicles. Potential applications include downsizing to increase fuel economy by ∼10% while maintaining performance, and with turbocharging to improve knock resistance.
Technical Paper

Simulator Motion Sickness Evaluation Based on Eye Mark Recording during Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

2014-04-01
2014-01-0441
The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction on Rough Road Using Full Vehicle Co-simulation Model with Suspension Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0952
A full vehicle multi-body dynamic (MBD) model with suspension control system is developed for fatigue life prediction under rough road condition. The model consists of tires, a trimmed body, heavy attached parts, powertrain, suspension, joints, and a driver model, and includes a suspension control system that varies characteristics of the suspension according to the rough road inputs. For tires, a commercial MBD tire model is employed with identifiable parameters. The models are simulated to run on the optically measured road surface of the proving ground. Apart from the trimmed body, several important heavy attached parts are modeled separately, that represent dynamic behavior that induces complex body input load. These parts, along with suspension and powertrain systems are connected to the body using nonlinear elements such as joints, springs, and dampers. Contact conditions are used to represent mount bushing, hood lock, stopper rubber, etc.
Journal Article

Development of Clean Diesel NOx After-treatment System with Sulfur Trap Catalyst

2010-04-12
2010-01-0303
Diesel engines with relatively good fuel economy are known as an effective means of reducing CO₂ emissions. It is expected that diesel engines will continue to expand as efforts to slow global warming are intensified. Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR), which was first developed in 2003 for introduction in the Japanese and European markets, shows high purification performance which can meet more stringent regulations in the future. However, it is poisoned by sulfur components in exhaust gas derived from fuel and lubricant. We then developed the sulfur trap DPNR with a sulfur trap catalyst that traps sulfur components in the exhaust gas. High purification performance could be achieved with a small amount of platinum group metal (PGM) due to prevention of sulfur poisoning and thermal deterioration.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Behavior for 4WD Vehicle on 4WD-chassis Dynamometer

2010-04-12
2010-01-0926
Technologies of 4WD chassis dynamometers (CHDY hereinafter) have advanced dramatically over the past several years, enabling 4WD vehicles to be tested without modifying their drive-train into 2WD. These advances have opened the use of 4WD-CHDY in all fuel economy and emission evaluation tests. In this paper, factors that influence the accuracy of fuel economy tests on 4WD CHDY are discussed. Fuel economy tests were conducted on 4WD CHDY and we found that most of the vehicle mechanical loss is the tire loss and that stabilizing the tire loss of the test vehicle is essential for the test reproducibility.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Compounds on Pre-ignition under High Temperature and High Pressure Condition

2011-08-30
2011-01-1984
Turbocharged (TC) engines have been introduced these days to improve the fuel economy. It is considered that one possible issue of the TC engine is a pre-ignition at high engine speed because of high temperature and high pressure in the combustion chamber. This study shows the effect of fuel compounds on pre-ignition at 4400rpm. The experimental engine is a naturally-aspirated (NA) engine which is customized to imitate the cylinder temperature and pressure of TC engines. It is known that research octane number (RON) describes anti-knock quality well. Meanwhile the results show that pre-ignition characteristic at high engine speed is dominated by motor octane number (MON) and auto-ignition temperature (AIT) rather than RON.
Technical Paper

New TOYOTA 4.8L V10 Petrol High Performance Engine for Lexus LFA

2011-08-30
2011-01-2024
Achieving the speed and performance of a true supercar was merely the starting point of this development. In addition, the development also focused on achieving emotive performance attributes to enhance driver appeal. For this the engine was developed to assist a vehicle handling provides unsurpassed response, the creating a feeling of infinite acceleration potential, response is instantaneous and based on close understanding of driver's reactions and Awe inspiring sound is providing. It meets the latest emission standard Euro V and achieves good fuel consumption with a wide range stoechiometric air fuel ratio, till speeds up to 240km/h.
Journal Article

Study of Diesel Engine System for Hybrid Vehicles

2011-08-30
2011-01-2021
In this study, we combined a diesel engine with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). Utilizing the functions of the THS, reducing engine friction, lowering the compression ratio, and adopting a low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system (LPL-EGR) were examined to achieve both low fuel consumption and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over a wide operating range. After applying this system to a test vehicle it was verified that the fuel economy greatly surpassed that of a conventional diesel engine vehicle and that NOx emissions could be reduced below the value specified in the Euro 6 regulations without DeNOx catalysts.
Technical Paper

Development of Novel Friction Modifier Technology Part 2: Vehicle Testing

2011-08-30
2011-01-2126
Requirements to reduce emissions and improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in improving fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications worldwide that require fuel economy improvements. A novel friction modifier technology has been developed to further improve vehicle fuel economy. The development of this novel friction modifier technology which contains only N,O,C,H was previously published along with the initial demonstration of performance in motorized Toyota engines. In order to validate this performance in fired engine tests, oil was evaluated in a Toyota Corolla Fielder with a 1500 cc gasoline engine. Testing was conducted in the Japanese 10-15 and JC08 modes, as well as the European EC mode, and the US FTP mode.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Set Up Development for Brake Squeal Basic Research

2013-09-30
2013-01-2032
The vehicle requires high brake performance and mass reduction of disc brake for vehicle fuel economy. Then disc brake will be designed by downsizing of disc and high friction coefficient pad materials. It is well known that disc brake squeal is frequently caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Disc brake squeal is caused by dynamic unstable system under disturbance of friction force variation. Today, disc brake squeal comes to be simulated by FEA, but it is very difficult to put so many dynamic unstable solutions into stable solutions. Therefore it is very important to make it clear the influence of friction force variation. This paper describes the development of experimental set up for disc brake squeal basic research. First, the equation of motion in low-frequency disc brake squeal around 2 kHz is derived.
Technical Paper

Preview Ride Comfort Control for Electric Active Suspension (eActive3)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0057
This paper reports the results of a study into a preview control that uses the displacement of the road surface in front of the vehicle to improve for front and rear actuator responsiveness delays, as well as delays due to calculation, communication, and the like. This study also examined the effect of a preview control using the eActive3 electric active suspension system, which is capable of controlling the roll, pitch, and warp modes of vehicle motion.
Technical Paper

The i-REAL Personal Mobility Vehicle

2011-05-17
2011-39-7242
The need for small personal mobility vehicles is growing as urbanization, the aging of society, traffic congestion, and parking become major issues, particularly in inner-city areas. The aging of society also means that more short trips within communities will be made. The i-REAL personal mobility vehicle is a next-generation single-passenger electric vehicle that enables the driver to move around town using a smaller amount of energy. This compact EV has three wheels: two front wheels driven by in-wheel motors and one rear wheel. According to the driver's needs, the i-REAL switches driving modes by changing its wheelbase. It can go slowly, allowing the driver to meet the eyes of passers-by when driving in parks, on sidewalks, or inside shopping malls. When on the road, it can lower its height and drive quickly like a bicycle or motorcycle. The body of the i-REAL leans automatically based on the speed and the turn angle to maintain the balance of the vehicle for any driver.
Technical Paper

The application of VHDL-AMS multi-domain HV simulation to the power performance and the fuel economy during warming up process

2011-05-17
2011-39-7245
In order to reduce CO2, EV and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) are effective. Those type vehicles have different power train from conventional vehicle. Those new power trains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicle with keeping same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have the issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large. The thermal energy seriously affect on the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, the power performance, the fuel economy and the effect of heat energy recovery from the exhaust gas are discussed for HV. For the power performance, the simulated acceleration time of 0-100km/h was 11.8sec and the measured vehicle time was 11.9sec. The error between simulation and actual measurement result was 1.2%. As for the fuel economy, the energy management using exhaust gas heat exchange system improved 10.3% of the fuel consumption during warming up.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle in TOYOTA

2011-05-17
2011-39-7238
The outline of the TOYOTA FCHV-adv is described in this paper. The TOYOTA FCHVadv achieved an approximately 25 percent improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency and about 1.9 times the amount of usable hydrogen in comparison with the previous model. These improvements have enabled almost 2.5 times longer practical cruising range, more than 500 km. The freeze start capabilities of the FCHV-adv were improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv has been capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, TOYOTA intends to improve durability and reduce costs.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Development for Preventing Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2785
Gasoline engine downsizing combined with a turbocharger is one of the more effective approaches to improve fuel efficiency without sacrificing power performance. The benefit comes from lower pumping loss, lower mechanical friction due to ‘downsizing’ of the engine displacement and ‘down-speeding’ of the engine by using higher transmission gear ratios which is allowed by the higher engine torque at lower engine speeds. However abnormal combustion referred to as Low-Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI) is known to be able to occur in low-speed and high-torque conditions. It is a potential restriction to maximize the engine performance and its benefit, therefore prevention of LSPI is strongly desired for long-term durability of engine performance. According to recent technical reports, auto-ignition of an engine oil droplet in a combustion chamber is believed to be one of major contributing factors of LSPI and its formulations have a significant effect on LSPI frequency.
X