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Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts - On the Two Effects of Rich-Spike Duration

2001-03-05
2001-01-1297
Two effects of rich-spike duration on NOx-storing have been analyzed. The first one, that NOx-storing speed decreases as rich-spike duration increases, is explained as the influence of NOx diffusion in wash-coat layer, which is quantified by a simple mathematical expression for NOx-storing rate. The second one, a peculiar behavior of NOx-storing in appearance of the outlet NOx concentration, is clarified: Heat produced directly or indirectly (via oxygen storage in ceria) by rich-spike warms up the downstream part, which releases excess NOx at the raised temperature. Contributions of the oxygen storage and the carbonate of NOx-storage material are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Plate Type Methanol Steam Reformer Using New Catalytic Combustion for a Fuel Cell

2002-03-04
2002-01-0406
Methanol steam reforming, which is an endothermic reaction, needs some heating. Both methanol conversion ratio and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration increase when temperature is elevated. As CO poisons a typical polymer electrolyte of a fuel cell, the relationship between methanol conversion ratio and CO concentration is a trade-off one. It was found from preliminary researches that the reforming reaction speed is controlled by heat transfer rate at large methanol flow rate, where methanol conversion ratio becomes lower and CO concentration becomes higher. Therefore it is necessary to develop a new methanol reforming concept that provides stable combustion for heating and enhanced heat transfer for improving the trade-off relationship and making a compact reformer. Reforming catalyst using metal honeycomb support and a new catalytic combustion were applied to a new concept plate type methanol steam reformer, which is used in a fuel cell of 3 kW-class electric generation.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption at High Engine Speed by Visualization of the Piston Ring Behaviors

2000-10-16
2000-01-2877
In internal combustion engine, it is well-known that oil infiltrates the combustion chamber through the clearance between the piston ring and the cylinder bore with vertical reciprocating motion of the piston, leading to an increase in oil consumption. The deformation of the cylinder bore is inevitable to some extent in the actual engine because of the tightening of cylinder head bolt and heat load._As to the function of the piston ring, it is desirable that it conforms to such bore deformation. The author et al. made a glass cylinder engine in which closed piston ring gap could be visualized, based on the idea that piston ring conformability to the sliding surface of bore could be evaluated from minute changes of the piston ring gap. This newly-devised visualized engine was an in-line 4-cylinder engine, capable of running up to 6,000 rpm, in which the closed gap of piston ring could be observed minutely during engine operation.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a Highly Efficient Hybrid Vehicle and Integrating Super Low Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2930
A new hybrid system has been developed which features a highly efficient, clean gasoline engine, and a high performance exhaust catalyst system. The new system meets the strictest low emission standards in the world, while realizing a major reduction in CO2 emissions. The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) has improved engine performance, transaxle transmission efficiency, and various vehicle improvements for improving fuel consumption. It also employs a high performance catalyst, a rapid catalyst warm-up strategy, Toyota HC Adsorber and Catalyst System (Toyota-HCAC-System) and a Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System. These combined technologies allow for the achievement of U.S. California SULEV, European Step 4 and Japanese J-ULEV emission requirements. It has also lowered the CO2 level to less than 120g/km in EC European mode.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

2002-03-04
2002-01-0732
In order to further improve the performance of NOx storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalysts), focus was placed on their high temperature performance deterioration via sulfur poisoning and heat deterioration. The reactions between the basicity or acidity of supports and the storage element, potassium, were analyzed. It was determined that the high temperature performance of NSR catalysts is enhanced by the interaction between potassium and zirconia, which is a basic metal oxide. Also, a new zirconia-titania complex metal oxides was developed to improve high temperature performance and to promote the desorption of sulfur from the supports after aging.
Technical Paper

Highly Efficient Hybrid Minivan with Super Low Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0992
This paper introduces a minivan with a newly developed hybrid system known as THS-C (The Hybrid System - CVT). This hybrid system employs a highly efficient engine, a high performance exhaust emission control system, a high efficiency metal belt CVT, and a super efficient motor. System control of the engine, motor and CVT optimizes the operation of both the motor and the engine. With these improvements, this new vehicle achieves over 80% better fuel economy than a comparable conventional vehicle. Exhaust emissions are dramatically reduced using precision control during the engine starts and stops.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1061
In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Fuel Liquid Film Thickness of a Port Fuel Injection Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1051
In this paper, the authors have developed a new measuring method of the liquid fuel film thickness on walls, such as intake ports, the combustion chamber and cylinder liner of a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine, and clarified the fuel film behavior under various running conditions when Fiber-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (Fiber-based LIF) was applied to the newly developed method. The thickness of the fuel film is measured by detecting the intensity of fluorescence from the film that is irradiated by a He-Cd laser. A single optical fiber is used to simultaneously transmit the laser beam and the fluorescence from the film. In addition, the S/N ratio of the fluorescence is improved by using a He-Cd laser of which the wavelength (λ=442nm) is able to efficiently irradiate test fuel doped 2-3-butandione. Using this method, the fuel film thickness on the wall of the PFI engine was analyzed in two case studies.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Properties on Soot Containing Deposit Formation in Turbocharger Compressor

2013-10-14
2013-01-2500
Due to increasing demands for further CO2 reduction and tighter exhaust emissions regulations, automakers are increasingly downsizing turbo-charged diesel engines by raising specific power, or adopting low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) systems to improve the EGR rate. However, adopting a higher boost pressure to increase the specific power, or introducing hot exhaust gas before the turbocharger compressor with the LPL-EGR system creates higher gas temperatures in the compressor, which results in soot-containing deposits derived from the engine oil in the compressor. This phenomenon causes significant deterioration of turbocharger efficiency. Therefore, countermeasures such as restricting boost pressure or limiting EGR usage in the operational map are necessary to prevent engine performance deterioration. Increasing the gas temperature in the compressor while preventing deposit formation should enable further improvements in fuel consumption and engine power.
Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1727
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2018-09-10
2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Contamination of Engine Oil by Fuel Combustion Byproducts

2014-10-13
2014-01-2574
This paper focuses on the fuel contribution to crankcase engine oil degradation in gasoline fueled engines in view of insoluble formation. The polymerization of degraded fuel is responsible for the formation of insoluble which is considered as a possible cause of low temperature sludge in severe vehicle operating conditions. The main objective of the study is to understand the mechanism of formation of partially oxidized compounds from fuel during the combustion process, before their accumulation in the crankcase oil. A numerical method has been established to calculate the formation of partially oxidized compounds in spark ignition engines directly, by using 3D CFD. To further enable the possibility of running a large number of simulations with a realistic turn-around time, a coupled approach of 3D CFD (with simplified chemical mechanism) and 0D Kinetics (with full chemical mechanism) is proposed here.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage-Reduction Three-way Catalyst for D-4 Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-1279
It is an essential task for automobiles to reduce their fuel consumption. A direct injection gasoline engine (D-4 engine) is effective in reducing fuel consumption, but the reduction of NOx in the lean combustion region is impossible with a conventional three-way catalyst. The NOx storage-reduction three-way catalyst was put into practical use in 1994 for vehicles with lean-burn engines. This catalyst, however, is poisoned by SO2 caused by fuel sulfur, thus its activity is reduced. The conversion efficiency of this sulfur poisoned catalyst was not sufficient for reducing NOx in the exhaust gas of D-4 engine. We have, therefore, studied the mechanism of sulfur poisoning, and succeeded in improving the catalytic performance with the newly developed monolithic substrate and the newly developed additives.
Technical Paper

Effects of Squish Area Shape on Knocking in a Four-Valve Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1494
Squish flow control is well known as a key technology for improving knock limit in spark ignition engines. However, to acquire a sufficient squish area in a four-valve engine is difficult. In order to achieve a maximum effect of knock suppression with a minimum squish area, we have developed, what we call, a Slant Squish Combustion Chamber for new engines. A slant squish compared with a conventional squish produces an effective reverse squish flow in the early expansion stroke, resulting in higher flow velocity and turbulence. Furthermore, flame propagation to squish area and end gas is accelerated. These improvements are considered to suppress the knock phenomenon. Consequently, with a slant squish, a high compression ratio, to achieve low fuel consumption and high engine performance is realized.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy Rear A/F Sensor

2017-03-28
2017-01-0949
New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
Technical Paper

Deactivation Mechanism of NOX Storage-Reduction Catalyst and Improvement of Its Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-1196
A lean burn engine is effective in reducing fuel consumption. NOX storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalyst) have been developed for these engines. In order to improve the performance of NSR catalysts, suppression of sulfur poisoning, which is one of the main causes of NSR catalyst deactivation, must be improved. In this paper, the sulfur desorption phenomenon has been analyzed from a novel point of view. Based on these results, an NSR catalyst with improved sulfur resistance has been developed by incorporation of highly dispersed titania, and use of a heat resistant zirconia with enhanced basicity.
Technical Paper

Studies on Carbon Canester to Satisfy LEVII EVAP Regulations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0895
Recently, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has proposed a new set of evaporative emissions and “Useful Life” standards, called LEVII EVAP regulations, which are more stringent than those of the enhanced EVAP emissions regulations. If the new regulations are enforced, it will become increasingly important for the carbon canister to reduce Diurnal Breathing Loss (DBL) and to prevent deterioration of the canister. Therefore, careful studies have been made on the techniques to meet these regulations by clarifying the working capacity deterioration mechanism and the phenomenon of DBL in a carbon canister. It has been found that the deterioration of working capacity would occur if high boiling hydrocarbons, which are difficult to purge, fill up the micropores of the activated carbon, and Useful Life could be estimated more accurately according to the saturated adsorption mass of the activated carbon and the canister purge volume.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Combustion Concept to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0531
A direct injection (DI) gasoline engine having a new stratified charge combustion system has been developed. This new combustion process (NCP) was achieved by a fan-shaped fuel spray and a combustion chamber with a shell-shaped cavity in the piston. Compared with the current Toyota D-4 engine, wider engine operating area with stratified combustion and higher output performance were obtained without a swirl control valve (SCV) and a helical port. This report presents the results of combustion analyses to optimize fuel spray characteristics and piston cavity shapes. Two factors were found to be important for achieving stable stratified combustion. The first is to create a ball-shaped uniform mixture cloud in the vicinity of the spark plug. The optimum ball-shaped mixture cloud is produced with a fuel spray having early breakup characteristics and uniform distribution, and a suitable side wall shape in the piston cavity to avoid the dispersion of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0530
A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.
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