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Technical Paper

Development of Toyota's New “Super CVT”

2001-03-05
2001-01-0872
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) named “Super CVT”. The Super CVT has a wide ratio coverage and adopts a newly developed integrated control system with a direct injection gasoline engine (D-4) equipped with electronically controlled throttle. The combined package has achieved good fuel economy and a high overall level of performance. This paper shows the major features and performance of the Super CVT.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Fan-Shaped Spray

2001-03-05
2001-01-0738
Numerical 3-D simulations are performed for the improvement of the new direct injection gasoline engine. A solution based local grid refinement method has been developed in order to reduce the CPU time. This method has been incorporated into the CFD program (STAR-CD) with in-house spray and combustion models. Calculation results were compared with the experimental data taken by the LIF technique, and good agreement was obtained for the mixture formation and combustion processes. Some calculations were carried out for the fuel-air mixture formation process during late injection stratified combustion and the following results were obtained. The unburnt fuel has a tendency to remain in the side of the piston cavity at the latter part of the combustion period. To reduce the amount of unburnt fuel, it was shown that the combination of a thin thickness fan spray and compact cavity forms a spherical mixture, suitable for combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of Stratified Charge Combustion Characteristics in New Concept Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0734
A new stratified charge system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle and a shell-shaped piston cavity. This system, basically classified into the wall-guided mixture preparation concept that leads air/fuel mixture to the spark plug periphery by means of spray penetration and piston cavity configuration without an extra intake air flow controlling system, obtained wide engine operating area with stratified combustion and high output performance. This report presents the characteristics of stratified mixture formation and combustion, especially the important factor for achieving stable stratified combustion in the high-speed region, which have been clarified through analytical studies.
Technical Paper

Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN)

1997-02-24
970297
This paper describes the multiplex communication protocol, BEAN (Body Electronics Area Network), developed for body control system on passenger cars which in recent years has increased the scope of multiplex communication. BEAN is based on a protocol developed in 1992 (SAE920231) but expands upon the performance in areas, such as the suitability of the ID system for increase of ECUs, the variable data length enabling the transmission of diagnostic data, and the transmission rate, while keeping the cost and radiation noise level low. The software size of BEAN is compact enough to be implemented by general purpose 8bit MCUs which have recently seen improvements in performance. The BEAN communication devices are available corresponding to the scale of the application and configuration of the ECU taking into account the software capability. This protocol was evaluated using simulation with the body control system on luxury passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Study of Anti-Corrosive Property of Engine Coolant for Aluminum Cylinder Heads

1995-02-01
950119
Recently, use of aluminum engine parts has increased for fuel economy and power improvements. Aluminum cylinder heads, for example, are currently used in most engines. But, only low performance engine coolants are available for prevention of heat-transfer corrosion of aluminum cylinder heads. The authors have studied a laboratory test method that is able to accurately evaluate the performance of engine coolants for prevention of aluminum cylinder head corrosion. And we have developed the new test method by changing the test specimen temperature higher and the engine coolant temperature lower than the ASTM D4340 test. The new test has been confirmed engine bench test. We evaluated further the performance of many engine coolants of the world for prevention of aluminum cylinder head corrosion using the new test. We have known that there were a lot of poor performance engine coolants in the world.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

1995-02-01
950672
The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Precise Temperature Control for Molten Ferrous Alloy in Induction Furnace

1997-02-24
970376
A precise control system for a molten ferrous alloy temperature above 1700 K after the completion of induction melting has been developed in order to produce high quality casting parts for automobiles. In this system, the molten ferrous alloy temperature is measured just one time by a disposable thermocouple after the melting. The system predicts the temperature transition after the measurement using an original thermal model, and adjusts the supplied electric power to the furnace automatically according to the predicted temperature. Using this thermal model, the system has attained control deviations within ±5K under the following temperature controls, and contributed to the quality control of casting parts and the energy-saving during furnace operations. Casting temperature for a cast-steel of 1813 K in a 300 kg capacity high-frequency induction furnace on the “Toyota Vacuum Casting Process”.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fuel Injection Control System for SI Engines

1996-05-01
961188
An advanced and practical fuel injection control system to reduce exhaust gas emissions has been developed. This control uses an exhaust air-fuel ratio (EAFR) sensor and a heated exhaust oxygen (HEO) sensor. The air fuel ratio of exhaust gas is precisely converged to stoichiometry. The integrated deviation of the mass of fuel inducted into the cylinder is rapidly converged to zero, so as to maximize the conversion efficiency of catalysts. The controller is derived from the models that express the dynamic phenomena. The experimental results show the effectiveness of this system for future exhaust emissions and enhanced evaporative emissions.
Technical Paper

Model Based Air Fuel Ratio Control for Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions

1995-02-01
950075
In order to satisfy future demands of low exhaust emission vehicles (LEV), a new fuel injection control system has been developed for SI engines with three-way catalytic converters. An universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO) is mounted on the exhaust manifold upstream of the catalytic converter to rapidly feedback the UEGO output signal and a heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor (HEGO) is mounted on the outlet of the converter to achieve an exact air fuel ratio control at stoichiometry. The control law is derived from mathematical models of dynamic air flow, fuel flow and exhaust oxygen sensors (HEGO and UEGO). Experimental results on FTP (Federal Test Procedure) exhaust emissions show a dramatic reduction of HC, CO and NOx emissions and a possibility of practical low emission vehicles at low cost.
Technical Paper

The High-Speed In-Vehicle Network of Integrated Control System for Vehicle Dynamics

1991-02-01
910463
This paper describes the preliminary development of an on-board integration network for vehicle dynamics. The underlying philosophy is explained and the basic requirements are set forth. A design conforming to these requirements is presented and the experiments conducted to optimise the physical layer are described. An original token passing protocol is proposed for the access method and evaluated in comparison with the contention method by means of a specially devised simulation system.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Preview Vehicle-Suspension System

1992-02-01
920277
The adaptation of an active control suspension has remarkably improved the vehicle attitude and ride comfort characteristics. Such an active controlled suspension is controlled by actuators and hydro-dynamic equipments like servo valves. The control strategies are composed of feedback control with each cylinder oil pressure, suspension stroke and velocity. In the practical application of these systems, it must be taken into account that the effect of control is much dependent on the time delay of a controller as well as control elements. The object of this study is to confirm preview effects on the response of the system. The aim of preview feedforward control is to compensate the system delay of active control suspension. The control system is constructed of an ordinary feedback loop and a feedforward loop based on a road preview signal.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Continuously Controlled Damper

1992-02-01
920276
The object of this study is to investigate the possibility of improving ride comfort, and develop a new damping control system. We supposed and analyzed the ideal damping control for vehicle suspension system using optimal control strategy. The parameter study shows the effect of reducing vehicle acceleration from road excitation. To achieve the same performance with a more simple and lower cost control strategy, we introduce another control strategy called ‘Skyhook model’ proposed by D.Karnopp. Continuously damping control system is developed based on this to avoid some problems that might be caused in the case of a two-stage switching system. Further more, variable control gain depends on vehicle vibration circumstances introduced to realize the adaptation of various road conditions. Using computer simulation and testing the experimental vehicle, effectiveness of this system is evident and the possibility of ride comfort improvement is verified by using this control.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Control Valve for Active Suspension

1992-02-01
920272
An active suspension system controls a spring constant and an attenuater in real time using a power supply. Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the power. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a commercial use. This has been achieved by developing a mechanical fluid servo valve which comprises a simple combination of a solenoid valve and a spool valve. The technical problem of the valve vibrations has been solved through the numerical analyses, the fluid flow visualization tests and the vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a New Automatic Transmission Control System for LEXUS LS400

1991-02-01
910639
A new automatic transmission, engineered from concept for “intelligent” and “anti-aging” (long life), has been designed and developed for TOYOTA's luxury passenger car, LEXUS LS400. This system, which has resulted in silky-smooth shift quality without changes in the long term, is composed of a transmission computer that interacts with engine computer, a number of sensors, an electronically controlled hydraulic unit with linear solenoid valves and assorted devices. As new control logic being developed with the aid of computer simulation to achieve distinction, the hydraulic and engine controls are combined in this system. There is a “feedback control”, where the clutch pressure is controlled according to the rate of acceleration and compensated for dispersion to applied pressure, engine torque and/or the coefficient of dynamic friction of clutches, and at the same time engine torque is reduced by retarding ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Integrated Control System Between Active Control Suspension and Four Wheel Steering for the 1989 CELICA

1990-09-01
901748
We adopted the active hydropneumatic suspension and the dual-mode 4WS system for the 1989 Toyota CELICA. The active control suspension system detects the vehicle state with various sensors to control the oil pressure in the hydraulic cylinder with the linear pressure control valve; controlling attitude, ride comfort, stability & controllability and three-level vehicle height. The 4WS system continuously changes the steering angle ratio between the front and rear wheel according to the vehicle speed, decreasing the minimum turning radius at a low speed by 0.5 m and improving the controllability at a medium speed and the stability at a high speed. In addition, we further improved the performance of each system by integrally controlling the active control suspension system and the 4WS system. Thus, we succeeded in improving the total performance of vehicle dynamics by adding ABS to these systems to control the vertical, lateral and longitudinal accelerations.
Technical Paper

Design of 2-Degree-of-Freedom Control System for Active Front-and-Rear-Wheel Steering

1990-09-01
901746
This paper describes how the 2-degree-of-freedom control concept may be applied to an active front-and-rear steering control system. The configuration of the system is explained as is the manner in which the control strategy can be devised. Simulation and test results confirm that vehicle characteristics may be varied to achieve specific aims and that steering response and vehicle stability can be independently improved.
Technical Paper

Development of ABS and Traction Control Computer

1990-09-01
901707
A new ABS and Traction control system (TRAC system) has been developed and put into mass production in a new model LEXUS LS400. The TRAC system controls Sub-Throttle Valve and brake hydraulic pressure independently for left and right wheels. To realize the ABS and TRAC system,it is necessary for the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to process complex algorithm and high speed calculation. The ABS and TRAC ECU for LEXUS LS400 is constructed by 3 TOYOTA custom 8-bit single chip microcomputers. Each CPU performs wheel speed calculation,ABS control and TRAC control,sharing the common data through high speed serial communication. This paper describes the function of each CPU,the method of CPU communication and fail safe function in the ECU.
Technical Paper

Development of the Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

1990-09-01
901710
A new engine cooling fan system has been developed, in which the fan is driven by a hydraulic pump and motor and controlled electronically by a computer. By utilizing the hydrostatic power under precise control, the fan generates not only high airflow volume but also optimum flow rate for the various engine conditions. Also in this system, a relatively high efficiency is gained because the clearance between the tip of the fan blade and a shroud designed to be short, thanks to the installation of the fan on the radiator. As the result of these functions, the following features have been obtained which are superior to conventional fan systems like a engine-driven fan with fluid coupling or an electric-motor fan. (1) Reduced fan noise (2) Improved fuel economy (3) Small size and light weight
Technical Paper

Detection of Higher Frequency Vibration to improve Knock Controllability

1987-10-01
871912
For a Knock Control System (KCS) with a vibration sensor mounted on the engine block, means of improving the ratio of knock signal to engine vibration noise are discussed. From analyses of cylinder pressure and engine block vibration spectrums, it is shown that noise is lower in the second knock resonance frequency. The development of a resonance type knock sensor detecting this higher frequency is described. A new KCS utilizing this sensor is evaluated and found to improve knock controllability, especially in engines with a high compression ratio or supercharging.
Technical Paper

Multiplex Systems for Automotive Integrated Control

1993-03-01
930002
This paper describes the development of the electrical systems for the integrated control system which unified automobile electronic control systems and led to a dramatic improvement in vehicle dynamics. An outline of the system is presented first, followed by actual automobile application examples of electrical systems employing medium-speed multiplexing.
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