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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Injection to Turbulent Duct Flow from a Slit Injector

2007-04-16
2007-01-1403
The behavior of spray injections to turbulent duct flows from a slit injector for direct-injection gasoline engines was investigated using a combination of large eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian discrete droplet model (DDM). As a result, diffusion of droplets in stronger turbulent flows was observed at a later stage of the injection. Moreover, we compared calculation and experimental results by generating a pseudo-particle image from the calculation result.
Technical Paper

Structural Design Technology for Brake Squeal Reduction Using Sensitivity Analysis

2010-10-10
2010-01-1691
The finite element method (FEM) is effective for analyzing brake squeal phenomena. Although FEM analysis can be used to easily obtain squeal frequencies and complex vibration modes, it is difficult to identify how to modify brake structure design or contact conditions between components. Therefore, this study deals with a practical design method using sensitivity analysis to reduce brake squeal, which is capable of optimizing both the structure of components and contact conditions. A series of analysis processes that consist of modal reduction, complex eigenvalue analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization analysis is shown and some application results are described using disk brake systems.
Journal Article

High Concentration Ethanol Effect on SI Engine Emission

2010-04-12
2010-01-1268
From the energy security and CO2 reduction point of view, much attention has been paid to the usage of bio-fuel. Recently, highly concentrated ethanol is used in some areas (“E85”; 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline in North America and Sweden, and “ethanol”; 93% ethanol and 7% water in Brazil). In these regions, Flexible Fuel Vehicles FFVs are being introduced that are capable of using fuels with a wide range of ethanol concentrations. Advantages of highly concentrated ethanol in internal combustion engine applications are higher thermal efficiency obtained due to higher octane number, and a reduction of nitrogen oxides due to lower combustion temperatures On the other hand, the latent heat of vaporization for ethanol is greater than gasoline, causing poor cold startability and high NMOG emissions. This paper examines the effect of highly concentrated ethanol on exhaust emissions at cold start in a SI- engine.
Technical Paper

Study of High Efficiency Zero-Emission Argon Circulated Hydrogen Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0581
The potential of high efficiency zero-emission engines fueled by hydrogen, which is regarded as a promising form of energy for the future, is being researched. The argon circulated hydrogen engine [ 1 ] is one system theoretically capable of achieving both high efficiency and zero emissions, and its feasibility for use in vehicles has been studied. Specifically, tests were performed to verify the following issues. It was examined whether stable hydrogen combustion could be achieved under an atmosphere of argon and oxygen, which has a high specific heat ratio, and whether the substantial thermal efficiency improvement effect of the argon working gas could be achieved. An argon circulation system was also studied whereby steam, which is the combustion product of the hydrogen and oxygen emitted from the engine, is separated by condensation to enable the remaining argon to be re-used.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0506
Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.
Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

2019-04-02
2019-01-1022
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Regenration Process of Ceramic Foam Diesel-Particulate Traps

1984-10-01
841394
Periodic regeneration of the diesel particulate trap is essential to maintain the collection efficiency and exhaust gas hack pressure at acceptable levels. The objectives of this study are to describe the phenomenology of ceramic foam filter regeneration process and to present its mathematical model. Further simulation study is carried out to estimate the effects of various factors including fuel additive on the ignition and the filter bed temperature and to investigate conditions of excessive temperature which could result in filter destruction. The model is based on the assumption that the regeneration process is composed of two steps. The first step is the additional heat supply from the external energy source, and the second step is the spontaneous combustion propagation. The results from the analytical model agreed very well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Gas Motion of Multivalve Engine-Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation

1986-02-01
860465
The characteristic of In-Cylinder gas motion of a multivalve engine is compared with a single intake valve engine, which have been predicted by a three-dimensional numerical simulation and flow visualization. The measured intake valve outlet velocity from helical and straight port was adopted as the boundary conditions. The computer graphics technique has been utilized to express the predicted numerical results as moving picture like visualized flow. This flow pattern was compared with the actual flow pattern visualized with metaldehyde as the tracer using the bottom viewed engine, which showed good agreement. The prediction for the multivalve engine showed that the swirl velocity is rapidly reduced by interaction between the flows from the two port, but the turbulence kinetic energy is similar to that in the engines with a single intake valve with helical port.
Technical Paper

Development of Methanol Lean Burn System

1986-03-01
860247
A methanol fueled, lean burn system has been developed to improve both specific fuel consumption and NOx emissions. A 1.6L four-cylinder engine with increased compression ratio has been used to develop this system. Three major components of the Toyota Lean Combustion System (T-LCS) have been applied: (1) A helical port with a swirl control valve (2) A lean mixture sensor (3) Timed, multi-point fuel injection. A 2250 lb. Inertia Weight test vehicle has been fitted with this engine, and fuel system materials have been modified. This methanol, lean burn system has improved the fuel economy by about 12% still satisfying the 1986 emission standards of the U.S.A. and Japan. Aldehyde emissions have also been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties and Engine Design Features on the Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Truck - A Cooperative Study

1986-10-01
861526
A cooperative research program has been completed evaluating the relative impact of fuel composition and engine design features on the emissions and fuel economy of a Toyota light-duty diesel truck. The fuel set was blended from commercially available refinery stocks and consisted of eight fuels with independently varying 10% and 90% distillation temperatures and aromatic content. The engine design variables included two compression ratios and three injector types with different fuel flow characteristics, and three injection timings. The main fuel effects observed were increasing hydrocarbon and particulate emissions with increasing aromatic content and, to a much lesser degree, increasing emissions with increasing 10% and 90% point. Changing from the standard fuel injectors to the reference injectors, which had both a higher nozzle opening pressure and a higher initial fuel flow rate, resulted in a substantial reduction in all emissions and improvements in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-0253
In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

Toyota EC-HYMATIC – A New Full Time 4WD System for Automatic Transmission

1989-02-01
890526
Toyota has developed a new full time 4WD system, called “EC-HYMATIC” or Electronically Controlled - HYdraulic Multi-plate clutch Active Traction Intelligent Control. This system permits an automatic torque transfer, depending on driving conditions, for front and rear wheels under control of the speed difference between the two. The system developed consists of a center differential, a speed difference control clutch system employing multi-plate clutch, and a gear set for rear axle drive. The speed difference control clutch system is controlled by a unique electro-hydraulic system using a microcomputer. An extensive use of computer simulations and vehicle test and evaluation has successfully developed an appropriate control strategy for the clutch system. The new 4WD system, EC-HYMATIC, considerably improves handling characteristics, traction performance and stability of a 4WD vehicle.
Technical Paper

HILS Application for Hybrid System Development

2007-08-05
2007-01-3469
The hybrid system has the typical advantage that it can realize various types of system control, because the system has two power units, engine and motor. On the other hand, however, constraints are increasing due to the complexity of the vehicle system. Compared to the conventional HILS construction and application, there are mainly two typical characteristics or themes for HV-HILS (i.e. HILS for hybrid vehicle control development). Firstly, HV-HILS requires full vehicle simulation environment, because the plural ECU control logic is intricately intertwined. Secondly, recent HILS system needs to run with more accurate or complicated plant models which are necessary to develop more accurate vehicle control logic.
Technical Paper

The High-Speed In-Vehicle Network of Integrated Control System for Vehicle Dynamics

1991-02-01
910463
This paper describes the preliminary development of an on-board integration network for vehicle dynamics. The underlying philosophy is explained and the basic requirements are set forth. A design conforming to these requirements is presented and the experiments conducted to optimise the physical layer are described. An original token passing protocol is proposed for the access method and evaluated in comparison with the contention method by means of a specially devised simulation system.
Technical Paper

Development of the All-Mechanical Air Bag System

1991-02-01
910149
A highly reliable all-mechanical air bag system has been developed with a production cost lower than the electrical air bag system. All components, such as the bag, inflator and sensor are integrated into the steering wheel. Regarding the sensor design, we first discussed the requirements of the sensor to optimize the driver's protection, and then we designed it using a simulation method. We have confirmed by crash tests that this method is correct, and have found that this system is effective for reducing facial injuries.
Technical Paper

Development of New Control Methods to Improve Response of Throttle Type Traction Control System

1992-02-01
920608
A description is made of new control methods to improve response of wheel slip regulation. These methods enabled a new Traction Control (TRC) system based on throttle control rather than brake pressure to be developed. Major points are as follows: (1) Use of fuel injection cut-off to minimize delay (2) Additional adaptive throttle control logic By these means, a response nearly equal to that with brake pressure control is achieved at lower cost and with a considerable weight saving. Furthermore, the system, by suppressing noise and vibration, enhances the driver's control ability.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a New Automatic Transmission Control System for LEXUS LS400

1991-02-01
910639
A new automatic transmission, engineered from concept for “intelligent” and “anti-aging” (long life), has been designed and developed for TOYOTA's luxury passenger car, LEXUS LS400. This system, which has resulted in silky-smooth shift quality without changes in the long term, is composed of a transmission computer that interacts with engine computer, a number of sensors, an electronically controlled hydraulic unit with linear solenoid valves and assorted devices. As new control logic being developed with the aid of computer simulation to achieve distinction, the hydraulic and engine controls are combined in this system. There is a “feedback control”, where the clutch pressure is controlled according to the rate of acceleration and compensated for dispersion to applied pressure, engine torque and/or the coefficient of dynamic friction of clutches, and at the same time engine torque is reduced by retarding ignition timing.
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